In the present study, we investigate the unsteady boundary layer transition based on the direct numerical simulation database of a high-pressure turbine (HPT) stage (Zhao and Sandberg, 2021, High-Fidelity Simulations of a High-Pressure Turbine Stage: Effects of Reynolds Number and Inlet Turbulence, ASME Turbo Expo 2021, Paper No. GT2021-58995), focusing on the transition mechanisms on the rotor blade, affected by the incoming periodic wakes and the background freestream turbulence (FST). On the basis of the fully resolved flow fields, we provide detailed analysis of the flow structures responsible for the transition, and two distinctive transition paths have been identified. The first path is the typical bypass transition via the instability of Klebanoff streaks, which happens when the transition region is not directly affected by the wake. The suction-side boundary layer is disturbed at the leading edge, resulting in the formation of streamwise streaks. These streaky structures endure varicose instability in the region with adverse pressure gradient (APG), then quickly break down into turbulent spots, which then evolve into fully turbulent flow. The other transition path is a consequence of the direct interaction between the wake structures and the blade boundary layer, when the wake apex starts to affect the transitional region. To be specific, the wake structures directly interact with the separation bubble in the APG region, causing sudden breakdown into turbulence. A calmed region is found to follow the wake-induced turbulent boundary layer. It is observed that the recovery to a calmed region can be impacted by the FST, as the calmed region in case with no FST is much longer compared to cases with stronger FST.