Finite element solutions are presented for the optimal design of hemispherically and flat-capped symmetrically laminated pressure vessels subjected to external pressure. The effect of vessel length, radius, and wall thickness, as well as bending-twisting coupling and hybridization on the optimal ply angle and buckling pressure are numerically studied. Comparisons of the optimal fiber angles and maximum buckling pressures for various vessel geometries are made with those for a hybrid pressure vessel. The well-known golden section method is used to compute the optimum angle in each case.
Optimal Design of Laminated Cylindrical Pressure Vessels for Maximum External Pressure
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Walker, M., Reiss, T., and Adali, S. (November 1, 1997). "Optimal Design of Laminated Cylindrical Pressure Vessels for Maximum External Pressure." ASME. J. Pressure Vessel Technol. November 1997; 119(4): 494–497. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2842335
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