This paper establishes limits on piping material strains for ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Level D loadings that ensure a limitation of deformation and provide suitable safety margins. In establishing the strain limits, potential piping failure modes due to compressive wrinkling and low-cycle fatigue are considered. A stress-strain correlation methodology to convert linear, elastically calculated Code Class 2 and 3 equation (9)-Level D stresses to strains is established. This correlation is based on the fatigue evaluation procedure of the Code and is verified by comparison with test results. A detailed discussion of test results compared with the stress-strain correlation methodology is also presented.

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