Soft robotics is projected to have a significant impact on healthcare, industry, and the military to deliver assistance in rehabilitation, daily living activities, repetitive motion tasks, and human performance augmentation. Many attempts have been made for application-specific robotic joints, robots, and exoskeletons using various actuator types, materials, and designs. The progress of creating soft robotic systems can be accelerated if a set of actuators with defined characteristics were developed, similar to conventional robotic actuators, which can be assembled to create desired systems including exoskeletons and end effectors. This work presents the design methodology of such a modular actuator, created with a novel corrugated diaphragm that can apply linear displacement, angular displacement, and force. This modular actuator approach allows for creating various robotic joints by arranging them into different configurations. The modular corrugated diaphragm actuator concept was validated through numerical simulation, fabrication, and testing. Linear displacement, angular displacement, and force characteristics were shown for a single module and in multi-module assemblies. Actuator assemblies that are configured in a serial and parallel manner were investigated to demonstrate the applicability and versatility of the concept of the modular corrugated diaphragm actuator for creating single and multi-degree-of-freedom joints.