Quality assessment of advanced materials like high strength ceramics and fibre reinforced composites requires detection and characterization of early damage and defects like cracks and pores even with linear dimensions of only 10 μm. Structures of the same size must be distinguishable in components of precision mechanics and electronics. This paper discusses some applications of microfocal X-ray radiography and high resolution computed tomography in nondestructive evaluation of such components. The latter can be looked at as a nondestructive microscopic technique imaging cross sections of an object. Results of investigations using a tomographic unit with a resolution capability of the order of magnitude of 20 μm are presented.

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