Part 1 of this two-part paper presents a comprehensive approach to verification and validation methodology and procedures for CFD simulations from an already developed CFD code applied without requiring availability of the source code for specified objectives, geometry, conditions, and available benchmark information. Concepts, definitions, and equations derived for simulation errors and uncertainties provide the overall mathematical framework. Verification is defined as a process for assessing simulation numerical uncertainty and, when conditions permit, estimating the sign and magnitude of the numerical error itself and the uncertainty in that error estimate. The approach for estimating errors and uncertainties includes (1) the option of treating the numerical error as deterministic or stochastic, (2) the use of generalized Richardson extrapolation for J input parameters, and (3) the concept of correction factors based on analytical benchmarks, which provides a quantitative metric to determine proximity of the solutions to the asymptotic range, accounts for the effects of higher-order terms, and are used for defining and estimating errors and uncertainties. Validation is defined as a process for assessing simulation modeling uncertainty by using benchmark experimental data and, when conditions permit, estimating the sign and magnitude of the modeling error itself. The approach properly takes into account the uncertainties in both the simulation and experimental data in assessing the level of validation. Interpretation of results of validation efforts both where the numerical error is treated as deterministic and stochastic are discussed. Part 2 provides an example for RANS simulations for a cargo/container ship where issues with regard to practical application of the methodology and procedures and interpretation of verification and validation results are discussed.
Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of CFD Simulations—Part 1: Methodology and Procedures
Contributed by the Fluids Engineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF FLUIDS ENGINEERING. Manuscript received by the Fluids Engineering Division November 4, 1999; revised manuscript received July 10, 2001. Associate Editor: P. E. Raad.
Stern, F., Wilson, R. V., Coleman, H. W., and Paterson, E. G. (July 10, 2001). "Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of CFD Simulations—Part 1: Methodology and Procedures ." ASME. J. Fluids Eng. December 2001; 123(4): 793–802. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1412235
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