Extensive efforts are being made to produce and use a variety of alternative energies in order to meet the rising global energy demand. The main purpose of this research was to evaluate the mass fuel burnt, emissions, and performance properties of biodiesel made from non-edible karanja oil along with hydrogen and nanoparticles in a standard diesel engine. Upon experimental evaluation, it was determined that the transesterified karanja oil retained all of its vital physicochemical properties within the specified tolerances. The emission and performance characteristics of karanja biodiesel blended with nanoparticles and hydrogen fuel were assessed at different engine loads ranging from 0% to 100%. The uniform amount of nanoparticles and hydrogen was incorporated into test fuels. Al2O3 nanoparticles of 50 ppm were used in this study and hydrogen of 5 L/min was supplied to the engine. K20NH test fuel had the maximum brake thermal efficiency and less brake-specific fuel consumption compared to the other fuel blend. The emissions were considerably reduced on karanja oil, nanoparticles, and hydrogen-blended biodiesel except for nitrogen emission compared with conventional diesel fuel. In this study, the utilization of karanja, nanoparticles, and hydrogen-blended biodiesel showed a promising alternative to fossil fuels due to reduced emission and enhanced performance characteristics.