Research Papers

Characterization of Tool–Chip Interface Temperature Measurement With Thermocouple Fabricated Directly on the Rake Face

[+] Author and Article Information
Sinan Kesriklioglu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: sinankesriklioglu@gmail.com

Cory Arthur

Third Wave Systems,
Eden Prairie, MN 55344
e-mail: corymarthur@gmail.com

Justin D. Morrow

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: justin.morrow6@gmail.com

Frank E. Pfefferkorn

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin-Madison,
Madison, WI 53706
e-mail: frank.pfefferkorn@wisc.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 3, 2018; final manuscript received May 24, 2019; published online July 22, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Tugrul Ozel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(9), 091008 (Jul 22, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1507; doi: 10.1115/1.4044035 History: Received July 03, 2018; Accepted May 26, 2019

The objective of this work is to fabricate thermocouples directly on the rake face of a commercially available tungsten carbide cutting insert for accurately measuring the tool–chip interface temperature during metal cutting. The thermocouples are sputtered onto the cutting insert using micromachined stencils, are electrically isolated with layers of Al2O3, and receive a top coating of AlTiN for durability. The result is a nonsacrificial thermocouple junction that is approximately 1.3 µm below the rake face of the tool and 30 µm from the cutting edge. Experimental and numerical characterization of the temperature measurement accuracy and response time are presented. The instrumented cutting tool can capture the tool–chip interface temperature transients at frequencies of up to 1 MHz, which enables the observation of serrated chip formation and adiabatic shear events. Temperature measurements from oblique machining of 4140 steel are presented and compared with three-dimensional, transient numerical simulations using finite element analysis, where cutting speed and feed are varied. This method of measuring the tool–chip interface temperature shows promise for future research and smart manufacturing applications.

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Fig. 1

TFTC: (a) fabrication procedure, (b) TC junction, and (c) embedded in cutting tool

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Fig. 2

Cross section of the coating layers (SEM) and chemical composition (EDS)

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Fig. 3

Steady-state calibration of the sputtered thin-film thermocouple

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Fig. 4

Steady-state temperature drop from the rake face to the thin-film thermocouple junction as a function of (a) heat flux and (b) thickness of the AlTiN layer

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Fig. 5

Dynamic response of (a) the thin-film thermocouple laser pulses and (b) the data acquisition system to the signal generator

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Fig. 6

1D transient heat transfer predictions for instrumented and coated insert: (a) and (b) attenuation of surface temperature at the thermocouple location at (a) 1 MHz, (b) 16 kHz, and (c) time delay as a function of coating thickness

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Fig. 7

Workpiece and tool setup

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Fig. 8

Measured tool–chip interface temperatures during dry oblique cutting of 4140 steel

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Fig. 9

Rake face after the cutting experiments

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Fig. 10

3D finite element model configuration

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Fig. 11

Temperature distribution in dry cutting of 4140 steel at a cutting speed of 120 m/min and feed of (a) 0.05 mm/rev and (b) 0.075 mm/rev

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Fig. 12

Tool–chip interface temperature: (a) predicted and (b) measured by the thin-film thermocouple

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Fig. 13

Predicted rake face temperature distribution at a cutting speed of 120 m/min and feed of 0.05 mm/rev when dry cutting 4140 steel

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Fig. 14

Predicted temperature gradients across the thermocouple location for different test conditions



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