Research Papers

Additive Manufacturing of Horizontal and 3D Functionally Graded 316L/Cu10Sn Components via Multiple Material Selective Laser Melting

[+] Author and Article Information
Chao Wei

Laser Processing Research Centre,
School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering,
The University of Manchester,
Oxford Road,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK
e-mails: chao.wei@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; chao.wei@manchester.ac.uk

Zhe Sun

Laser Processing Research Centre,
School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering,
The University of Manchester,
Oxford Road,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK
e-mail: zhe.sun@manchester.ac.uk

Qian Chen

School of Materials,
The University of Manchester,
Oxford Road,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK
e-mail: qian.chen-6@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk

Zhu Liu

School of Materials,
The University of Manchester,
Oxford Road,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK
e-mail: zhu.liu@manchester.ac.uk

Lin Li

Laser Processing Research Centre,
School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering,
The University of Manchester,
Oxford Road,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK
e-mail: lin.li@manchester.ac.uk

1Corresponding authors.

Manuscript received January 15, 2019; final manuscript received May 29, 2019; published online June 21, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Hongqiang Chen.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(8), 081014 (Jun 21, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-19-1031; doi: 10.1115/1.4043983 History: Received January 15, 2019; Accepted May 29, 2019

Production of functionally graded materials (FGMs, i.e., a gradual transition from one material to another) and components is challenging using conventional manufacturing techniques. Additive manufacturing (AM) provides a new opportunity for producing FGMs. However, current metal AM technologies including powder-bed fusion are limited to producing single material components or vertical FGM parts, i.e., a different material composition in different layers but not within the same layer, and in situ changing materials is challenging. In this paper, we demonstrate the fabrication of horizontal and 3D 316L/Cu10Sn components with FGM within the same layer and in different layers, via a proprietary multiple selective powder delivery array device incorporated into a selective laser melting system that allowed the deposition of up to six different materials point by point. The manufactured component macrostructure, microstructure, microhardness, and phases were examined. Smooth transition from one material to the other was realized. Also, an interesting phenomenon was found that the maximum hardness was at 50% 316L and 50% Cu10Sn. The work would open up a new opportunity for the manufacturing of true 3D functionally graded components using additive manufacturing and for the rapid development of new metal alloy systems.

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Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup schematic diagram of the multiple material SLM system, (b) and (c) show the 3D model and a photograph of the ultrasonic powder dispenser array, and (d) the FGM component process flow chart

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Fig. 2

(a) and (b) show the macro-profiles of the top surface and sliced cross section of the square sample, (c) is a laser melt pool schematic diagram indicating the powder at the interface was remelted, (d1)–(d4) present microscopic images at the interfaces between the material sections, respectively, and (e1) and (e2) the SEM images of microstructure at 100 vol% 316L and 100 vol% Cu10Sn region, respectively

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Fig. 3

(a) SEM and EDS chemical elemental mapping at the interfaces showing transitions from 316L to Cu10Sn across sample cross section, the dash lines show the interfaces between different material composition sections and (b) compositional gradation plot showing a gradual material change from 316L to Cu10Sn

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Fig. 4

The microhardness plot as the function of distance on the sample cross section where the deposited material was transiting from 100 vol% 316L to 100 vol% Cu10Sn

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Fig. 5

XRD result of the SLM processed horizontal FGM sample with material transiting from 316L to Cu10Sn

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Fig. 6

(a) a 3D FGM turbine disk having a ring and blades made of Cu10Sn and 316L, respectively, and (b) an Eiffel tower whose material transited from Cu10Sn at the bottom to 316L at top gradually



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