Research Papers

Wear Performance Evaluation of Minimum Quantity Lubrication With Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets in Turning Titanium Alloy

[+] Author and Article Information
Dinh Nguyen

Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
1449 Engineering Research Court Room A100,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: sondinh@egr.msu.edu

Phi-Ho Lee

Department of 3D Printing,
Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials,
156, Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu,
Daejeon 34103, Republic of Korea
e-mail: pilho_lee@kimm.re.kr

Yang Guo

Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
428 S. Shaw Lane, Room 2457,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: yguo@egr.msu.edu

Kyung-Hee Park

Manufacturing System R&D Department,
Korea Institute on Industrial Technology,
89 Yanagdaegiro-gil, Ipjang-myeon,
Seobuk-gu, Cheonan 331-825, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea
e-mail: kpark@kitech.re.kr

Patrick Kwon

Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
428 S. Shaw Lane, Room 2555,
East Lansing, MI 48824
e-mail: pkwon@egr.msu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 13, 2018; final manuscript received May 23, 2019; published online June 13, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Tugrul Ozel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(8), 081006 (Jun 13, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1656; doi: 10.1115/1.4043899 History: Received September 13, 2018; Accepted May 23, 2019

This paper evaluates the performances of dry, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), and MQL with nanofluid conditions in turning of the most common titanium (Ti) alloy, Ti-6Al-4 V, in a solution treated and aged (STA) microstructure. In particular, the nanofluid evaluated here is vegetable (rapeseed) oil mixed with small concentrations of exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGnPs). This paper focuses on turning process that imposes a challenging condition to apply the oil or nanofluid droplets directly onto the tribological surfaces of a cutting tool due to the uninterrupted engagement between tool and work material during cutting. A series of turning experiments was conducted with uncoated carbide inserts, while measuring the cutting forces with a dynamometer under the dry, MQL and MQL with nanofluid conditions supplying oil droplets externally from our MQL device. The inserts are retrieved intermittently to measure the progress of flank and crater wear using a confocal microscopy. This preliminary experimental result shows that MQL and in particular MQL with the nanofluid significantly improve the machinability of Ti alloys even in turning process. However, to attain the best performance, the MQL conditions such as nozzle orientation and the concentration of xGnP must be optimized.

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Fig. 1

Microstructure of Ti-6Al-4 V in the STA condition

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Fig. 2

SEM image of xGnP [37]

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Fig. 3

Stability in mixtures of oil: (a) 0.1, (b) 0.5, and (c) 1.0 wt% xGnP M5 after 72 h

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Fig. 4

Experimental setup

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Fig. 5

The cutting forces measured and the orientation of MQL nozzle in turning center

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Fig. 6

Tool wear analysis with 3D confocal images: (a) HEI image, (b) 3D confocal image, (c) 2D profile of flank wear, and (d) 2D profile of crater wear

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Fig. 7

Cutting forces in x, y, and z directions under various conditions: (a) force signals from dynamometer, (b) average cutting forces, and (c) variation in cutting force

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Fig. 8

Tool wear under various conditions: (a) flank wear in various nozzle orientations, (b) crater wear in various nozzle orientations, (c) flank wear in four xGnP concentrations in nanofluid, and (d) crater wear in four xGnP concentrations in nanofluid



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