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Research Papers

Nonlinear Dynamics of Friction Heating in Ultrasonic Welding

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhiwei Liu

Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian, Liaoning 116024, China;
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
e-mail: zhiweili@umich.edu

Yang Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
e-mail: umliyang@umich.edu

Yuefang Wang

Faculty of Vehicle Engineering and Mechanics,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian, Liaoning 116024, China
e-mail: yfwang@dlut.edu.cn

Elijah Kannatey-Asibu, Jr.

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
e-mail: asibu@umich.edu

Bogdan I. Epureanu

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Michigan,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
e-mail: epureanu@umich.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 30, 2018; final manuscript received April 3, 2019; published online April 19, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(6), 061011 (Apr 19, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1826; doi: 10.1115/1.4043455 History: Received November 30, 2018; Accepted April 04, 2019

High temperature, short welding time, and low relative motion generate high bond quality in ultrasonic metal welding (USMW). Friction is considered to be the main heat source during USMW. Hence, a comprehensive and accurate understanding of friction heating has become particularly valuable for designing USMW processes and devices. However, stick, slip, and separation states may appear alternately in the welding zone between superimposed workpieces during USMW vibrations; hence, a strong nonlinear process is created. Furthermore, the structural dynamics and the heat transfer are highly coupled because material properties depend on temperature. In this research, we propose a fast and accurate numerical methodology to calculate the friction heating through a multiphysical approach integrating a nonlinear contact model, a nonlinear structural dynamics model, and a thermal model. The harmonic balance method and the finite element method are utilized to accelerate the simulation. Several experiments were performed with aluminum and copper workpieces under different clamping forces and vibration amplitudes to confirm the presented numerical method, resulting in a good match.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the computational analysis iteration

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Fig. 2

The node-to-node contact model under 2D view

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Fig. 3

The AFT iterative process

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Fig. 4

The heat flux generated over time is assumed to be quasi-constant over small time intervals of the order of 0.1 s that include many vibration cycles of the order of 2000

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Fig. 5

(a) Schematic of the ultrasonic welder [13] and (b) photo of the welder

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Fig. 6

USMW tools: (a) horn and anvil, (b) dimensions of the horn, (c) side A dimensions of the anvil, and (d) side B dimensions of the anvil

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Fig. 7

Young's modulus versus temperature

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Fig. 8

Location of the temperature measuring point

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Fig. 9

Temperature (K) versus time (s) for two interfaces (at 25 psi clamping force, 30 µm vibration amplitude, and set energy of 650 J)

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Fig. 10

Schematic of the horn-workpieces-anvil vibration system

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Fig. 11

(a) The ratio λ versus the distance (m) the horn travels and (b) the temperature (K) versus time (s) from experiments and simulation (at 30 psi clamping force and a set vibration amplitude of 30 µm)

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Fig. 12

Temperature (K) versus time (s) from experiments and simulation for a set vibration amplitude of 30 µm: (a) 25 psi clamping force, (b) 30 psi clamping force, (c) 35 psi clamping force, and (d) 40 psi clamping force

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Fig. 13

Temperature (K) versus time (s) from experiments and simulation for a set vibration amplitude of 40 µm: (a) 25 psi clamping force, (b) 30 psi clamping force, (c) 35 psi clamping force, and (d) 40 psi clamping force

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Fig. 14

Temperature (K) versus time (s) from experiments and simulation for a set vibration amplitude of 50 µm: (a) 25 psi clamping force, (b) 30 psi clamping force, (c) 35 psi clamping force, and (d) 40 psi clamping force

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Fig. 15

The maximum temperatures (K) against different parameters

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Fig. 16

Temperature (K) distribution at the interface at different time instants (at 30 psi clamping force and a set vibration amplitude of 30 µm): (a) t = 0.15 s, (b) t = 0.42 s, (c) t = 0.53 s, (d) t = 0.59 s, (e) t = 0.71 s, and (f) t = 0.83 s

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