Research Papers

An Experimental and Numerical Study of Dieless Water Jet Incremental Microforming

[+] Author and Article Information
Yi Shi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: yishi2014@u.northwestern.edu

Weizhao Zhang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: weizhaozhang2014@u.northwestern.edu

Jian Cao

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: jcao@northwestern.edu

Kornel F. Ehmann

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: k-ehmann@northwestern.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received May 27, 2018; final manuscript received January 28, 2019; published online February 28, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Gracious Ngaile.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(4), 041008 (Feb 28, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1363; doi: 10.1115/1.4042790 History: Received May 27, 2018; Accepted January 28, 2019

Conventional single-point incremental forming (SPIF) is already in use for small batch prototyping and fabrication of customized parts from thin sheet metal blanks by inducing plastic deformation with a rigid round-tip tool. The major advantages of the SPIF process are its high flexibility and die-free nature. In lieu of employing a rigid tool to incrementally form the sheet metal, a high-speed water jet as an alternative was proposed as the forming tool. Since there is no tool-workpiece contact in this process, unlike in the traditional SPIF process, no lubricant and rotational motion of the tool are required to reduce friction. However, the geometry of the part formed by water jet incremental microforming (WJIMF) will no longer be controlled by the motion of the rigid tool. On the contrary, process parameters such as water jet pressure, stage motion speed, water jet diameter, blank thickness, and tool path design will determine the final shape of the workpiece. This paper experimentally studies the influence of the above-mentioned key process parameters on the geometry of a truncated cone shape and on the corresponding surface quality. A numerical model is proposed to predict the shape of the truncated cone part after WJIMF with given input process parameters. The results prove that the formed part's geometric properties predicted by the numerical model are in excellent agreement with the actually measured ones. Arrays of miniature dots, channels, two-level truncated cones, and letters were also successfully fabricated on stainless-steel foils to demonstrate WJIMF capabilities.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Emmens, W. C., Sebastiani, G., and van den Boogaard, A. H., 2010, “The Technology of Incremental Sheet Forming-A Brief Review of the History,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., 210(8), pp. 981–997. [CrossRef]
Jeswiet, J., Micari, F., Hirt, G., Bramley, A., Duflou, J., and Allwood, J., 2005, “Asymmetric Single Point Incremental Forming of Sheet Metal,” Cirp Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 54(2), pp. 623–649. [CrossRef]
Micari, F., Ambrogio, G., and Filice, L., 2007, “Shape and Dimensional Accuracy in Single Point Incremental Forming: State of the Art and Future Trends,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., 191(1-3), pp. 390–395. [CrossRef]
Filice, L., Fratini, L., and Micari, F., 2002, “Analysis of Material Formability in Incremental Forming,” Cirp Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 51(1), pp. 199–202. [CrossRef]
Ehmann, K. F., Bourell, D., Culpepper, M. L., Hodgson, T. J., Kurfess, T. R., Madou, M., Rajurkar, K., and DeVor, R. E., 2005, International Assessment of Research and Development in Micromanufacturing, DTIC Document, World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC), Inc., Baltimore, MD.
Ng, M. K., Fan, Z. Y., Gao, R. X., Smith, E. F., and Cao, J., 2014, “Characterization of Electrically-Assisted Micro-Rolling for Surface Texturing Using Embedded Sensor,” Cirp Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 63(1), pp. 269–272. [CrossRef]
Joo, B. Y., Rhim, S. H., and Oh, S. I., 2005, “Micro-Hole Fabrication by Mechanical Punching Process,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., 170(3), pp. 593–601. [CrossRef]
Cao, J., Krishnan, N., Wang, Z., Lu, H. S., Liu, W. K., and Swanson, A., 2004, “Microforming: Experimental Investigation of the Extrusion Process for Micropins and its Numerical Simulation Using RKEM,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. Trans. ASME, 126(4), pp. 642–652. [CrossRef]
Tang, Y., Chi, Y., Chen, J. C., Deng, X. X., Liu, L., Liu, X. K., and Wan, Z. P., 2007, “Experimental Study of Oil-Filled High-Speed Spin Forming Micro-Groove Fin-Inside Tubes,” Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manuf., 47(7-8), pp. 1059–1068. [CrossRef]
Saotome, Y., and Okamoto, T., 2001, “An In-Situ Incremental Microforming System for Three-Dimensional Shell Structures of Foil Materials,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., 113(1-3), pp. 636–640. [CrossRef]
Obikawa, T., Satou, S., and Hakutani, T., 2009, “Dieless Incremental Micro-Forming of Miniature Shell Objects of Aluminum Foils,” Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manuf., 49(12–13), pp. 906–915. [CrossRef]
Sekine, T., and Obikawa, T., 2010, “Single Point Micro Incremental Forming of Miniature Shell Structures,” J. Adv. Mech. Des. Syst., 4(2), pp. 543–557. [CrossRef]
Beltran, M., Malhotra, R., Nelson, A., Bhattacharya, A., Reddy, N., and Cao, J., 2013, “Experimental Study of Failure Modes and Scaling Effects in Micro-Incremental Forming,” J. Micro. Nano-Manuf., 1(3), 031005. [CrossRef]
Iseki, H., 2001, “Flexible and Incremental Bulging of Sheet Metal Using High-Speed Water Jet,” JSME Int. J. C Mech. Syst. Mach. Elem. Manuf., 44(2), pp. 486–493. [CrossRef]
Al-Gharndi, K. A., and Hussain, G., 2015, “Corrigendum to: ‘Threshold Tool-Radius Condition Maximizing the Formability in SPIF Considering a Variety of Materials: Experimental and FE Investigations (Vol. 88, p. 82, 2015),’” Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manuf., 91, p. 115. [CrossRef]
Jurisevic, B., Kuzman, K., and Junkar, M., 2006, “Water Jetting Technology: An Alternative in Incremental Sheet Metal Forming,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech., 31(1–2), pp. 18–23. [CrossRef]
Lu, B., Cao, J., and Ou, H., 2011, “Theoretical and Numerical Analysis of Incremental Sheet Forming by Using High Pressure Water Jet,” ASME 2011 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, ASME, Corvallis, OR, pp. 565–571.
Lu, B., Bazeer, M. W. M., Cao, J. F., Ai, S., Chen, J., Ou, H., and Long, H., 2017, “A Study of Incremental Sheet Forming by Using Water Jet,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Tech., 91(5–8), pp. 2291–2301. [CrossRef]
Obara, T., Bourne, N. K., and Field, J. E., 1995, “Liquid-Jet Impact on Liquid and Solid-Surfaces,” Wear, 186(2), pp. 388–394. [CrossRef]
Hussain, G., and Gao, L., 2007, “A Novel Method to Test the Thinning Limits of Sheet Metals in Negative Incremental Forming,” Int. J. Mach. Tool. Manuf., 47(3–4), pp. 419–435. [CrossRef]
Voce, E., 1955, “A Practical Strain Hardening Function,” Metallurgia, 51, pp. 219–226.
Shi, Y., Zhang, W., Cao, J., and Ehmann, K. F., 2019, “Experimental Study of Water Jet Incremental Micro-Forming With Supporting Dies,” J. Mater. Process. Tech., 268, pp. 117–131. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Water jet incremental microforming

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Water jet incremental microforming machine: (a) schematic diagram and (b) photo of the machine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Water jet trajectory for the water jet incremental microforming

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Water jet incremental microformed cone shape part; (b) measured 3D profile of the truncated cone; and (c) comparison between the measurement and the ideal truncated cone (75 MPa water jet pressure, 20 mm/s feed rate, and 0.08 mm incremental step/pitch)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of logarithm strain in the radial direction ε1 between the measurement and predicted values by the cosine law (75 MPa water jet pressure, 20 mm/s feed rate, and 0.08 mm incremental step/pitch)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effect of water jet pressure on wall angle and surface roughness

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Surface changes as water jet pressure increases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of incremental step/pitch on wall angle and surface roughness

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Images of the inner surface of the formed cone with different incremental steps/pitches

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effect of feed rate on wall angle and surface roughness

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Minimum water jet pressure for inducing plastic deformation on a 50.8-µm-thick stainless-steel foil

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Effect of λ on wall angle and pressure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Configuration of numerical simulation in ABAQUS

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

(a) Sintech 20G tensile machine with a VIC-3D digital image correlation (DIC) system and (b) flow curve of the 316L stainless-steel foil

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparison between FE simulation, measurement result, and actual formed part

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Comparison between FE simulations and experiments in terms of (a) wall angle and (b) overall height of the truncated cone

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

CCD images of complex geometries

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

CCD images, microscopic image, and corresponding measurements of microdots



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In