Research Papers

Generating Contextual Design for Environment Principles in Sustainable Manufacturing Using Visual Analytics

[+] Author and Article Information
Devarajan Ramanujan

Department of Engineering,
Aarhus University,
Aarhus C 8000, Denmark
e-mail: devr@eng.au.dk

William Z. Bernstein

Systems Integration Division,
National Institute of Standards and Technology,
Gaithersburg, MD 20899

Maria Aurrekoetxea Totorikaguena, Charlotte Frølund Ilvig, Klaus Bonde Ørskov

Danish Advanced Manufacturing
Research Center,
Herning 7400, Denmark

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received May 5, 2018; final manuscript received October 22, 2018; published online December 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Karl R. Haapala. This work is in part a work of the US Government. ASME disclaims all interest in the U.S. Government's contributions.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(2), 021016 (Dec 24, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1302; doi: 10.1115/1.4041835 History: Received May 05, 2018; Revised October 22, 2018

Design for environment (DfE) principles are helpful for integrating manufacturing-specific environmental sustainability considerations into product and process design. However, such principles are often overly general, static, and disconnected from production contexts. This paper proposes a visual analytics (VA)-based framework for generating DfE principles that are contextualized to specific production setups. These principles are generated through interactive visual exploration of design and process parameters as well as manufacturing process performance metrics corresponding to the production setup. We also develop a formal schema for aiding storage, updating, and reuse of the generated DfE principles. In this schema, each DfE principle is associated with corresponding product lifecycle data and the evidence that led to the generation of that principle. We demonstrate the proposed VA framework using data from an industry-led experiment that compared dry ice (DI)-based and oil-based milling for a specific production setup.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Manyika, J. , Chui, M. , Brown, B. , Bughin, J. , and Dobbs, R. , 2011, “ Big Data: The Next Frontier for Innovation, Competition, and Productivity,” McKinsey Global Institute, accessed Nov. 1, 2017, https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Business%20Functions/McKinsey%20Digital/Our%20Insights/Big%20data%20The%20next%20frontier%20for%20innovation/MGI_big_data_full_report.ashx
Lee, J. , Lapira, E. , Bagheri, B. , and Kao, H.-A. , 2013, “ Recent Advances and Trends in Predictive Manufacturing Systems in Big Data Environment,” Manuf. Lett., 1(1), pp. 38–41. [CrossRef]
Barnaghi, P. , Sheth, A. , and Henson, C. , 2013, “ From Data to Actionable Knowledge: Big Data Challenges in the Web of Things [Guest Editors' Introduction],” IEEE Intell. Syst., 28(6), pp. 6–11. [CrossRef]
Ramanujan, D. , Bernstein, W. Z. , Chandrasegaran, S. K. , and Ramani, K. , 2017, “ Visual Analytics Tools for Sustainable Lifecycle Design: Current Status, Challenges, and Future Opportunities,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 139(11), p. 111415. [CrossRef]
Ramanujan, D. , and Bernstein, W. Z. , 2018, “ VESPER: Visual Exploration of Similarity and Performance Metrics for Computer-Aided Design Repositories,” ASME Paper No. MSEC2018-6527.
Kim, H. H. M. , Liu, Y. , Wang, C. C. , and Wang, Y. , 2017, “ Special Issue: Data-Driven Design (D3),” ASME J. Mech. Des., 139(11), p. 110301. [CrossRef]
Wang, J. , Ma, Y. , Zhang, L. , Gao, R. X. , and Wu, D. , 2018, “ Deep Learning for Smart Manufacturing: Methods and Applications,” J. Manuf. Syst., 48(Pt. C), pp. 144–156.
Wuest, T. , Weimer, D. , Irgens, C. , and Thoben, K.-D. , 2016, “ Machine Learning in Manufacturing: Advantages, Challenges, and Applications,” Prod. Manuf. Res., 4(1), pp. 23–45.
Thomas, J. J. , 2005, Illuminating the Path: The Research and Development Agenda for Visual Analytics, IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC.
Lenox, M. , King, A. , and Ehrenfeld, J. , 2000, “ An Assessment of Design-for-Environment Practices in Leading U.S. Electronics Firms,” Interfaces, 30(3), pp. 83–94. [CrossRef]
Keoleian, G. A. , and Menerey, D. , 1993, “ Life Cycle Design Guidance Manual: Environmental Requirements and the Product System,” Life Cycle Design Guidance Manual: Environmental Requirements and the Product System, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Graedel, T. E. , and Allenby, B. R. , 1996, Design for Environment, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Brezet, H. , 1997, Ecodesign: A Promising Approach to Sustainable Production and Consumption, United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), Nairobi, Kenya.
Gungor, A. , and Gupta, S. M. , 1999, “ Issues in Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing and Product Recovery: A Survey,” Comput. Ind. Eng., 36(4), pp. 811–853. [CrossRef]
Gutowski, T. G. , Murphy, C. F. , Allen, D. T. , Bauer, D. J. , Bras, B. , Piwonka, T. S. , Sheng, P. S. , Sutherland, J. W. , Thurston, D. L. , and Wolff, E. E. , 2001, “ Environmentally Benign Manufacturing,” International Technology Research Institute, World Technology (WTEC) Division, Baltimore, MD, Report. http://wtec.org/loyola/pdf/ebm.pdf
Giudice, F. , La Rosa, G. , and Risitano, A. , 2006, Product Design for the Environment: A Life Cycle Approach, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Vezzoli, C. , and Manzini, E. , 2008, Design for Environmental Sustainability, Springer, London.
Fiksel, J. , 2009, Design for Environment: A Guide to Sustainable Product Development, McGraw-Hill Professional, New York.
Telenko, C. , O'Rourke, J. M. , Seepersad, C. C. , and Webber, M. E. , 2016, “ A Compilation of Design for Environment Guidelines,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 138(3), p. 031102. [CrossRef]
Ehrenfeld, J. , and Lenox, M. J. , 1997, “ The Development and Implementation of DfE Programmes,” J. Sustainable Prod. Des., 1(1), pp. 17–27.
Ramanujan, D. , Bernstein, W. Z. , Choi, J.-K. , Koho, M. , Zhao, F. , and Ramani, K. , 2014, “ Prioritizing Design for Environment Strategies Using a Stochastic Analytic Hierarchy Process,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 136(7), p. 071002. [CrossRef]
Pigosso, D. C. A. , McAloone, T. C. , and Rozenfeld, H. , 2014, “ Systematization of Best Practices for Ecodesign Implementation,” DS 77: The DESIGN 2014 13th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia, May 19–22, pp. 1651–1662.
Hernandez, N. V. , Kremer, G. O. , Schmidt, L. C. , and Herrera, P. A. , 2012, “ Development of an Expert System to Aid Engineers in the Selection of Design for Environment Methods and Tools,” Expert Syst. Appl., 39(10), pp. 9543–9553. [CrossRef]
Rombouts, J. P. , 1998, “ LEADS-II. A Knowledge-Based System for Ranking DfE-Options,” IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment (ISEE), Oak Brook, IL, May 6, pp. 287–291.
Rounds, K. S. , and Cooper, J. S. , 2002, “ Development of Product Design Requirements Using Taxonomies of Environmental Issues,” Res. Eng. Des., 13(2), pp. 94–108. [CrossRef]
Telenko, C. , and Seepersad, C. C. , 2010, “ A Methodology for Identifying Environmentally Conscious Guidelines for Product Design,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 132(9), p. 091009. [CrossRef]
Luttropp, C. , and Lagerstedt, J. , 2006, “ Ecodesign and the Ten Golden Rules: Generic Advice for Merging Environmental Aspects Into Product Development,” J. Cleaner Prod., 14(15–16), pp. 1396–1408. [CrossRef]
Oehlberg, L. , Bayley, C. , Hartman, C. , and Agogino, A. , 2012, “ Mapping the Life Cycle Analysis and Sustainability Impact of Design for Environment Principles,” Leveraging Technology for a Sustainable World, Springer, Berlin, pp. 221–226.
Hauschild, M. Z. , Jeswiet, J. , and Alting, L. , 2004, “ Design for Environment—Do We Get the Focus Right?,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 53(1), pp. 1–4. [CrossRef]
Holt, R. , and Barnes, C. , 2010, “ Towards an Integrated Approach to Design for X: An Agenda for Decision-Based DFX Research,” Res. Eng. Des., 21(2), pp. 123–136. [CrossRef]
Ramani, K. , Ramanujan, D. , Bernstein, W. Z. , Zhao, F. , Sutherland, J. , Handwerker, C. , Choi, J.-K. , Kim, H. , and Thurston, D. , 2010, “ Integrated Sustainable Life Cycle Design: A Review,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 132(9), p. 091004. [CrossRef]
Sedlmair, M. , Isenberg, P. , Baur, D. , and Butz, A. , 2011, “ Information Visualization Evaluation in Large Companies: Challenges, Experiences and Recommendations,” Inf. Visualization, 10(3), pp. 248–266. [CrossRef]
Mazumdar, S. , Varga, A. , Lanfranchi, V. , Petrelli, D. , and Ciravegna, F. , 2011, “ A Knowledge Dashboard for Manufacturing Industries,” Extended Semantic Web Conference, Heraklion, Greece, May 29–30, pp. 112–124.
Xu, P. , Mei, H. , Ren, L. , and Chen, W. , 2016, “ ViDX: Visual Diagnostics of Assembly Line Performance in Smart Factories,” IEEE Conference on Visual Analytics Science and Technology, Baltimore, MD, Oct. 23–28, p. 10.
Jo, J. , Huh, J. , Park, J. , Kim, B. , and Seo, J. , 2014, “ Livegantt: Interactively Visualizing a Large Manufacturing Schedule,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph., 20(12), pp. 2329–2338. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Reijner, H. , 2008, “ The Development of the Horizon Graph,” accessed Nov 1, 2017, http://www.stonesc.com/Vis08_Workshop/DVD/Reijner_submission.pdf
Bernstein, W. Z. , Ramanujan, D. , Elmqvist, N. , Zhao, F. , and Ramani, K. , 2014, “ ViSER: Visualizing Supply Chains for Eco-Conscious Redesign,” ASME Paper No. DETC2014-34960.
Kamath, M. , Srivathsan, S. , Ingalls, R. G. , Shen, G. , and Pulat, P. S. , 2011, “ TISCSoft: A Decision Support System for Transportation Infrastructure and Supply Chain System Planning,” 44th Hawaii Internal Conference on System Sciences (HICSS), Kauai, HI, Jan. 4–7, pp. 1–9.
Hesse, S. , Spehr, M. , Gumhold, S. , and Groh, R. , 2014, “ Visualizing Time-Dependent Key Performance Indicator in a Graph-Based Analysis,” IEEE Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA), Barcelona, Spain, Sept. 16–19, pp. 1–7.
Childerhouse, P. , and Towill, D. R. , 2002, “ Analysis of the Factors Affecting Real-World Value Stream Performance,” Int. J. Prod. Res., 40(15), pp. 3499–3518. [CrossRef]
Bertoni, M. , Bertoni, A. , Broeze, H. , Dubourg, G. , and Sandhurst, C. , 2014, “ Using 3D CAD Models for Value Visualization: An Approach With SIEMENS NX HD3D Visual Reporting,” Comput. Aided Des. Appl., 11(3), pp. 284–294. [CrossRef]
Gutowski, T. , Dahmus, J. , and Thiriez, A. , 2006, “ Electrical Energy Requirements for Manufacturing Processes,” 13th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Lueven, Belgium, May 31—June 2, pp. 623–638. http://web.mit.edu/2.813/www/readings/Gutowski-CIRP.pdf
UNECE, 2005, “ Codes for Units of Measure Used in International Trade,” United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Report. http://digitallibrary.un.org/record/547277/files/%5BE_ECE_%5DTRADE_CEFACT_2005_19-EN.pdf
Li, K. , and Bernstein, W. Z. , 2017, “ Developing a Capability-Based Similarity Metric for Manufacturing Processes,” ASME Paper No. MSEC2017-2790.
Todd, R. , Allen, D. , and Alting, L. , 1994, Manufacturing Processes Reference Guide, Industrial Press, New York.
Lu, T. , Gupta, A. , Jayal, A. , Badurdeen, F. , Feng, S. C. , Dillon , O., Jr. , and Jawahir, I. , 2011, “ A Framework of Product and Process Metrics for Sustainable Manufacturing,” Advances in Sustainable Manufacturing, Springer, Berlin, pp. 333–338.
Ashby, M. , and Cebon, D. , 1993, “ Materials Selection in Mechanical Design,” J. Phys. IV, 3(C7), pp. C7-1–C7-9.
Ramanujan, D. , Bernstein, W. Z. , Benjamin, W. , Ramani, K. , Elmqvist, N. , Kulkarni, D. , and Tew, J. , 2015, “ A Framework for Visualization-Driven Eco-Conscious Design Exploration,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 15(4), p. 041010. [CrossRef]
ISO, 1994, “ Industrial Automation Systems and Integration – Product Data Representation and Exchange—Part 1: Overview and Fundamental Principles,” International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. 10303-1:1994.
ISO, 2006, “ Environmental Management—Life Cycle Assessment—Principles and Framework,” International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. 14040:2006.
ASTM, 2016, “ Standard Guide for Characterizing Environmental Aspects of Manufacturing Processes,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, Standard No. E3012-16.
Barbau, R. , Krima, S. , Rachuri, S. , Narayanan, A. , Fiorentini, X. , Foufou, S. , and Sriram, R. D. , 2012, “ OntoSTEP: Enriching Product Model Data Using Ontologies,” Comput. Aided Des., 44(6), pp. 575–590. [CrossRef]
Giffi, C. , McNelly, J. , Dollar, B. , Carrick, G. , Drew, M. , and Gangula, B. , 2015, “ The Skills Gap in U.S. Manufacturing: 2015 and Beyond,” Deloitte Development LLC, Washington, DC, accessed Nov. 1, 2017, https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/pages/manufacturing/articles/skills-gap-manufacturing-survey-report.html


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Conceptual overview of the VA-based approach for generating contextual DfE principles in sustainable manufacturing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Overview of the methodology for generating contextual DfE principles in sustainable manufacturing using VESPER. As shown, the tasks involved can be divided into three steps: (i) data gathering and preprocessing, (ii) interactive visual exploration, and (iii) DfE principle(s) generation.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Examples of categorical and numerical characteristics for both Assembly and Part elements. KPIs refer to any performance characteristic.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Unified modeling language conceptual diagram describing the formal schema for a DfE principles within VESPER

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Analysts interact with the visual interface by exploring part data, similarity and performance metrics, as well as the selected DfE principles. Contextual DfE principles are generated by the analysts by exploring these data. The visual interface also facilities export of the generated DfE principles and analysts' interaction data. The dotted line in the figure represents analysts' interactions with the tool, while the solid lines represent automated operations.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Process plans for the cylinder and cube geometry. The machining depth for each operation (shown in the Z axis) was the same for both geometries.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Contextual DfE subprinciples added by the PE under the minimize material waste DfE principle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Screen capture of the prototype visual interface implemented for the case study. Note data related to process and performance parameters are boxed out due to confidentiality requirements. Elements present in the interface are detailed in Sec.4.3.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

(a) DfE database populated with contextual DfE principles generated in the case study. (b) DfE principles exported to a spreadsheet.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In