Research Papers

An Adaptive Geometry Transformation and Repair Method for Hybrid Manufacturing

[+] Author and Article Information
Maxwell Praniewicz

George W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
801 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: max.praniewicz@gatech.edu

Thomas Kurfess

George W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
801 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: kurfess@gatech.edu

Christopher Saldana

George W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
801 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: christopher.saldana@me.gatech.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received May 14, 2018; final manuscript received September 20, 2018; published online October 19, 2018. Editor: Y. Lawrence Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(1), 011006 (Oct 19, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1333; doi: 10.1115/1.4041570 History: Received May 14, 2018; Revised September 20, 2018

Hybrid manufacturing has become particularly attractive for refurbishing of high-value freeform components. Components may experience unique geometric distortions and/or wear-driven material loss in service, which require the use of part-specific, adaptive repair strategies. The current work presents an integrated adaptive geometry transformation method for additive/subtractive hybrid manufacturing based on rigid and nonrigid registrations of parent region material and geometric interpolation of the repair region material. In this approach, rigid registration of nominal part geometry to actual part geometry is accomplished using iterative alignment of profiles in the parent material. Nonrigid registration is used to morph nominal part geometry to actual part geometry by transformation of the profile mean line. Adaptive additive and subtractive tool paths are then used to add material based on constant stock margin requirements, as well as to produce blend repairs with smooth transition between parent and repair regions. A range of part deformation conditions due to profile twist and length changes are evaluated for the case of a compressor blade/airfoil geometry. Accuracy of the resulting adaptive geometry transformation method were quantified by (1) surface comparisons of actual and transformed nominal geometry and (2) blend region surface accuracy. Performance of the adaptive repair strategy relative to a naïve strategy is evaluated by the consideration of material efficiency and process cycle time. It is shown that the adaptive repair strategy resulted in an increase in material efficiency by 42.2% and a decrease in process time by 17.8%, depending on the initial deformation imposed on the part geometry.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Thompson, M. K. , Moroni, G. , Vaneker, T. , Fadel, G. , Campbell, R. I. , Gibson, I. , Bernard, A. , Schulz, J. , Graf, P. , Ahuja, B. , and Martina, F. , 2016, “ Design for Additive Manufacturing: Trends, Opportunities, Considerations, and Constraints,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 65(2), pp. 737–760. [CrossRef]
Lauwers, B. , Klocke, F. , Klink, A. , Tekkaya, A. E. , Neugebauer, R. , and Mcintosh, D. , 2014, “ Hybrid Processes in Manufacturing,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 63(2), pp. 561–583. [CrossRef]
Soshi, M. , Ring, J. , Young, C. , Oda, Y. , and Mori, M. , 2017, “ Innovative Grid Molding and Cooling Using an Additive and Subtractive Hybrid CNC Machine Tool,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 66(1), pp. 401–404. [CrossRef]
Yamazaki, T. , 2016, “ Development of a Hybrid Multi-Tasking Machine Tool: Integration of Additive Manufacturing Technology With CNC Machining,” Procedia CIRP, 42, pp. 81–86. [CrossRef]
Newman, S. T. , Zhu, Z. C. , Dhokia, V. , and Shokrani, A. , 2015, “ Process Planning for Additive and Subtractive Manufacturing Technologies,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 64(1), pp. 467–470. [CrossRef]
Ren, L. , Sparks, T. , Ruan, J. Z. , and Liou, F. , 2010, “ Integrated Process Planning for a Multiaxis Hybrid Manufacturing System,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 132(2), p. 021006. [CrossRef]
Jones, J. B. , McNutt, P. , Tosi, R. , Perry, C. , and Wimpenny, D. I. , 2012, “ Remanufacture of Turbine Blades by Laser Cladding, Machining and In-Process Scanning in a Single Machine,” 23rd Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, pp. 821–827 https://www.dora.dmu.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/2086/7552.
Ren, L. , Padathu, A. P. , Ruan, J. , and Liou, F. , 2008, “Three Dimensional Die Repair Using a Hybrid Manufacturing System,” SFF Symposium, Austin, TX, Aug. 4–6.
Choi, D.-S. , Lee, S. H. , Shin, B. S. , Whang, K. H. , Song, Y. A. , Park, S. H. , and Jee, H. S. , 2001, “ Development of a Direct Metal Freeform Fabrication Technique Using CO2 Laser Welding and Milling Technology,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 113(1–3), pp. 273–279., [CrossRef]
Karunakaran, K. , Suryakumar, S. , Pushpa, V. , and Akula, S. , 2009, “ Retrofitment of a CNC Machine for Hybrid Layered Manufacturing,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 45(7–8), pp. 690–703. [CrossRef]
Flynn, J. M. , Shokrani, A. , Newman, S. T. , and Dhokia, V. , 2016, “ Hybrid Additive and Subtractive Machine Tools–Research and Industrial Developments,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 101, pp. 79–101. [CrossRef]
Hamed, A. , Tabakoff, W. , and Wenglarz, R. , 2006, “ Erosion and Deposition in Turbomachinery,” J. Propul. Power, 22(2), pp. 350–360. [CrossRef]
Bremer, C. , 2005, “ Automated Repair and Overhaul of Aero-Engine and Industrial Gas Turbine Components,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68193.
Gao, J. , Folkes, A. , Yilmaz, O. , and Gindy, N. , 2005, “ Investigation of a 3D Non-Contact Measurement Based Blade Repair Integration System,” Aircr. Eng. Aerosp. Technol., 77(1), pp. 34–41. [CrossRef]
Qi, H. , Azer, M. , and Singh, P. , 2010, “ Adaptive Toolpath Deposition Method for Laser Net Shape Manufacturing and Repair of Turbine Compressor Airfoils,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 48(1–4), pp. 121–131. [CrossRef]
Zheng, J. M. , Li, Z. G. , and Chen, X. , 2006, “ Worn Area Modeling for Automating the Repair of Turbine Blades,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 29(9–10), pp. 1062–1067. [CrossRef]
Piya, C. , Wilson, J. , Murugappan, S. , Shin, Y. , and Ramani, K. , 2011, “ Virtual Repair: Geometric Reconstruction for Remanufacturing Gas Turbine Blades,” ASME Paper No. DETC2011-48652.
Yilmaz, O. , Gindy, N. , and Gao, J. , 2010, “ A Repair and Overhaul Methodology for Aeroengine Components,” Rob. Comput.-Integr. Manuf., 26(2), pp. 190–201. [CrossRef]
Rong, Y. , Xu, J. , and Sun, Y. , 2014, “ A Surface Reconstruction Strategy Based on Deformable Template for Repairing Damaged Turbine Blades,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part G, 228(12), pp. 2358–2370. [CrossRef]
Yun, Z. , Zhi-Tong, C. , and Tao, N. , 2015, “ Reverse Modeling Strategy of Aero-Engine Blade Based on Design Intent,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 81(9–12), pp. 1781–1796. [CrossRef]
Ke, Y. L. , Fan, S. Q. , Zhu, W. D. , Li, A. , Liu, F. S. , and Shi, X. Q. , 2006, “ Feature-Based Reverse Modeling Strategies,” Comput.-Aided Des., 38(5), pp. 485–506. [CrossRef]
Li, Y. Q. , and Ni, J. , 2009, “ Constraints Based Nonrigid Registration for 2D Blade Profile Reconstruction in Reverse Engineering,” ASME J. Comput. Inf. Sci. Eng., 9(3), p. 031005. [CrossRef]
Dong, Y. , Zhang, D. , Bu, K. , Dou, Y. , and Wang, W. , 2011, “ Geometric Parameter-Based Optimization of the Die Profile for the Investment Casting of Aerofoil-Shaped Turbine Blades,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 57(9–12), p. 1245. [CrossRef]
Besl, P. J. , and McKay, N. D. , 1992, “ A Method for Registration of 3-D Shapes,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 14(2), pp. 239–256. [CrossRef]
Slabaugh, G. G. , 1999, “ Computing Euler Angles From a Rotation Matrix,” City University of London, London, Technical Report, pp. 39–63.
Sharman, A. , Dewes, R. C. , and Aspinwall, D. K. , 2001, “ Tool Life When High Speed Ball Nose End Milling Inconel 718™,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 118(1–3), pp. 29–35. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Image of compressor blade through various stages of repair process. Starting as a worn in use part (a), adding material to build up cut back material (b), fully repaired blade after machining. Section X shows a 2D cross section of a typical compressor blade with geometry notations.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Process for CAD geometry manipulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Example of an actual part and its nominal CAD model, shown in dark and light gray, respectively, with blade twist (θ) and chord change (ΔC) shown in (a) and (b), respectively

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Evolution of nominal geometry (gray) throughout the registration process in comparison with actual geometry (red): (a) nominal geometry, (b) rigid registration, and (c) profile mean line transformation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Surface comparison: (a) comparison of actual blade (red) to nominal geometry (gray) and (b) surface comparison of registered geometry to actual blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Surface comparison of completely registered blade (opaque) to actual welded geometry (transparent) shown from multiple angles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Weld profiles superimposed on an actual geometry (a) created from the nominal data, (b) created by increasing the offset of nominal weld, and (c) weld created using adaptive geometry. Images of two different cross sections are shown for each profile.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of adaptive (a) and nonadaptive (b) material efficiency in the weld deposition process with respect to changes in twist (θ) and chord compression (ΔC)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Images of tool path strategies used in machining simulations, roughing (a), prefinishing (b), and finishing (c), and their resulting geometries (d)–(g)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In