Research Papers

Self-Sufficient Modeling of Single Track Deposition of Ti–6Al–4V With the Prediction of Capture Efficiency

[+] Author and Article Information
Christopher Katinas

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: ckatinas@purdue.edu

Shunyu Liu

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: liu1760@purdue.edu

Yung C. Shin

ASME Fellow
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: shin@purdue.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 6, 2018; final manuscript received August 27, 2018; published online October 8, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Zhijian (ZJ) Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(1), 011001 (Oct 08, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1212; doi: 10.1115/1.4041423 History: Received April 06, 2018; Revised August 27, 2018

Understanding the capture efficiency of powder during direct laser deposition (DLD) is critical when determining the overall manufacturing costs of additive manufacturing (AM) for comparison to traditional manufacturing methods. By developing a tool to predict the capture efficiency of a particular deposition process, parameter optimization can be achieved without the need to perform a costly and extensive experimental study. The focus of this work is to model the deposition process and acquire the final track geometry and temperature field of a single track deposition of Ti–6Al–4V powder on a Ti–6Al–4V substrate for a four-nozzle powder delivery system during direct laser deposition with a LENS™ system without the need for capture efficiency assumptions by using physical powder flow and laser irradiation profiles to predict capture efficiency. The model was able to predict the track height and width within 2 μm and 31 μm, respectively, or 3.3% error from experimentation. A maximum of 36 μm profile error was observed in the molten pool, and corresponds to errors of 11% and 4% in molten pool depth and width, respectively. Based on experimentation, the capture efficiency of a single track deposition of Ti–6Al–4V was found to be 12.0%, while that from simulation was calculated to be 11.7%, a 2.5% deviation.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

DLD process diagram

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Optomec LENS 750 nozzle geometry—(a) bottom view and (b) side view

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Particle concentration of H13 steel [left] and Ti64 [right] at 6.55 g/min powder flow, 5.04 m/s nozzle velocity, 2.08 m/s shielding gas velocity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Microstructures of the laser direct deposited Ti64 bead and the hot rolled Ti64 substrate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cross-sectional view of Ti–6Al–4V single track deposition

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Fig. 4

Discretized domain used for Ti64 DLD simulation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Temperature field at centerplane during the DLD process at 0.25 s

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Fig. 8

Molten pool velocities: (a) side view, (b) top view, and (c) front view at laser beam center



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