Research Papers

A State-of-the-Art Review on Solid-State Metal Joining

[+] Author and Article Information
Wayne Cai

GM Global R&D Center,
Warren, MI 48090-9055

Glenn Daehn, Anupam Vivek

The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210

Jingjing Li, Haris Khan

Department of Industrial and Manufacturing
310 Leonhard Building,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802

Rajiv S. Mishra

Center for Friction Stir Processing,
Department of Materials Science and
Advanced Materials and Manufacturing
Processes Institute,
University of North Texas,
Denton, TX 76203

Mageshwari Komarasamy

Center for Friction Stir Processing,
Department of Materials Science and
University of North Texas,
Denton, TX 76203

Manuscript received June 7, 2018; final manuscript received August 8, 2018; published online January 29, 2019. Editor: Y. Lawrence Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(3), 031012 (Jan 29, 2019) (35 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1431; doi: 10.1115/1.4041182 History: Received June 07, 2018; Revised August 08, 2018

This paper aims at providing a state-of-the-art review of an increasingly important class of joining technologies called solid-state (SS) welding, as compared to more conventional fusion welding. Among many other advantages such as low heat input, SS processes are particularly suitable for dissimilar materials joining. In this paper, major SS joining technologies such as the linear and rotary friction welding (RFW), friction stir welding (FSW), ultrasonic welding, impact welding, are reviewed, as well as diffusion and roll bonding (RB). For each technology, the joining process is first depicted, followed by the process characterization, modeling and simulation, monitoring/diagnostics/ nondestructive evaluation (NDE), and ended with concluding remarks. A discussion section is provided after reviewing all the technologies on the common critical factors that affect the SS processes. Finally, the future outlook is presented.

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Fig. 1

Example from the Audi Q7 body structure showing the varied joining approaches to treat varied materials and topologies. From top left and around, acronyms refer to Flow Drilling Screws, Friction Element Welds, Stainless Steel Rivets, Self-Piercing Rivets, Spot Welding, Metal Inert Gas, and Metal Active Gas Welding. (Reprinted with permission from Dr. Uwe Alber, Audi AG © 2018).

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Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of friction welding processes: (a) direct drive rotary welding (Reprinted with permission from [5], copyright 2016 Taylor & Francis), (b) inertia drive rotary welding (Reprinted with permission from TWI Ltd.), and (c) linear welding (Reprinted with permission from [13], copyright 2012 Taylor & Francis)

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Fig. 3

FSBW configuration of dissimilar metals with various tool offset: (a) positive tool offset where FSW tool is inserted into the hard metal, (b) zero offset where FSW tool is barely in contact with the faying surface of the hard metal, and (c) negative tool offset where FSW tool is completed plunged into the soft metal

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Fig. 4

FSLW of (a) and (b) dissimilar Al alloys, and (c) dissimilar metals (e.g., Al and steel). Note the difference in the plunge depth into the bottom plate between dissimilar Al alloys and dissimilar metals.

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Fig. 5

(a) Schematic showing the thermocouple locations. Thermal profiles for welds in (b) air and (c) liquid N2 (Reprinted with permission from [43], copyright 2014 Springer Nature).

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Fig. 6

Overall bonding mechanisms and microstructural evolution in Al and Mg dissimilar welds

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Fig. 8

Schematic illustration of joining mechanism in Al–Fe when steel is (a) on AS and (b) on RS. (c)–(f) Various stages of weld formation mechanism.

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Fig. 10

Wire bonding: the bond head is finishing the second bond on a Cu substrate [112]

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Fig. 9

A schematic of USMW system [133]

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Fig. 7

(a) Asymmetric temperature distribution and (b) material flow behavior.

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Fig. 12

Schematic of high-speed camera setup: (a) workpiece stack-up aligned with horn (side view) and (b) displacement measurement of metal layer (front view)

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Fig. 13

scanning electron microscope (SEM) BSE images of the early stages of microbond formation: In (c), examples are shown of the progressive rotation of an isolated microbond out of plane, along with a schematic diagram (d) of how this could be caused by a net shear displacement at the weld interface (Reprinted with permission from [122], copyright 2010 Elsevier)

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Fig. 14

Sectioned and etched three Al layers, observed under optical microscope. The Cu layer is not shown (Reprinted with permission from [126], copyright 2014 Elsevier).

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Fig. 11

Thin film microsensor design layouts with 4 thin-film thermocouples and 1 thin-film thermopile

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Fig. 15

SEM (left) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) (right) images of the IMC reaction layers seen in the AA6111-DC04 steel welds (a) and (b) after a short 0.3 s, and (c) and (d) medium 1.5 s welding times. In (e) and (f), a comparison is provided to the equivalent AA7055-DC04 steel welds after a welding time of 1.5 s. In the TEM images, the dashed lines indicate the interfaces between different phases. (Reprinted with permission from [123], copyright 2016 Springer Nature).

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Fig. 18

Ultrasonic welding process simulation results for four-layered Al/Cu sheets

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Fig. 16

Relationship between microhardness and welding zones: (a) a schematic diagram of ultrasonically welded joint, (b) microhardness profile of the weld interface, and (c) hardness profile outside of weld zone [129]

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Fig. 20

Schematic of MPW process

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Fig. 19

Explosive welding illustration

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Fig. 21

Schematic of VFAW process: (a) vaporization of the foil actuator, (b) welding stack up, also shown is the PDV probe for measuring flyer velocity, and (c) VFAW process schematic depicting unwelded region in region of flat impact

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Fig. 22

Schematic of the laser impact welding process

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Fig. 23

Voltage and velocity measurements from a VFAW experiment. Flyer velocity of 800 m/s reached within 5 μs of foil burst.

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Fig. 26

A thin, amorphous reaction zone at the interface of aluminum/steel MPW sample (Reprinted with permission from [209], copyright 2015 AIP Publishing)

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Fig. 24

Wavy interfaces with various material combinations and impact welding processes (Reprinted with permission from [153] from Dr. Koen Faes of Belgian Welding Institute 2010 and from [173] from Curtis Prothe of Nobelclad 2016).

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Fig. 25

Hierarchical microstructure of titanium-steel interface [173]

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Fig. 27

Tested samples from (a) shear test, (b) cantilever bend test, and (c) clad tensile plate test (Reprinted with permission from [173], from Curtis Prothe of Nobelclad 2016)

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Fig. 30

Interfacial failure process where “A” indicates crack initiation sites at the GBs due to slipping bands invading against GBs and “B” indicates sites having intergranular cracks (Reprinted with permission from [238], copyright 2007 Elsevier)

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Fig. 28

Impact welding window based on impact velocity and angle along with various types of interfaces formed depending on the conditions [199]

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Fig. 29

Diffusion bonding mechanism (Reprinted with permission from [209], copyright 2014 John Wiley and Sons)



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