Research Papers

An Enhanced Microstructure-Level Finite Element Machining Model for Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
Lingyun Jiang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: ljiang10ui@gmail.com

Chandra Nath

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: nathc2@asme.org

Johnson Samuel

Assistant Professor
Department of Mechanical Aerospace
and Nuclear Engineering,
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute,
Troy, NY 12180
e-mail: samuej2@rpi.edu

Shiv G. Kapoor

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,
1206 W. Green Street,
Urbana, IL 61801
e-mail: sgkapoor@illinois.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Manufacturing Engineering Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING. Manuscript received May 23, 2014; final manuscript received July 30, 2014; published online December 12, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Donggang Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 137(2), 021009 (Apr 01, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-14-1292; doi: 10.1115/1.4028200 History: Received May 23, 2014; Revised July 30, 2014; Online December 12, 2014

During the machining of carbon nanotube (CNT)-polymer composites, the interface plays a critical role in the load transfer between polymer and CNT. Therefore, the interface for these composites has to be explicitly considered in the microstructure-level finite element (FE) machining model, so as to better understand their machinability and the interfacial failure mechanisms. In this study, a microstructure-level FE machining model for CNT-polymer composites has been developed by considering the interface as the third phase, in addition to the polymer and the CNT phases. For the interface, two interfacial properties, viz., interfacial strength and fracture energy have been included. To account for variable temperature and strain rate over the deformation zone during machining, temperature and strain rate-dependent mechanical properties for the interface and the polymer material have also been included in the model. It is found that the FE machining model predicts cutting force within 6% of the experimental values at different machining conditions and CNT loadings. The cutting force data reveals that the model can accurately capture the CNT pull-out/protrusion, and the subsequent surface damage. Simulated surface damage characteristics are supported by the surface topographies and roughness values obtained from the machining experiments. The study suggests that the model can be utilized to design the new generation of CNT-polymer composites with specific interfacial properties that minimize the surface/subsurface damage and improve the surface finish.

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Fig. 1

Young’s modulus of PVA material at different temperatures

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Fig. 2

Eyring rate plots showing dependence of plastic stress on temperature and strain rate in PVA (* data points)

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Fig. 3

SEM images of typical CNT–PVA composite samples at: (a) 2 wt.% and (b) 4 wt.% CNT loadings

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Fig. 4

Parameterization of individual CNTs [5]

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Fig. 5

Interspace between two adjacent CNTs for two typical cases at: (a) 2 wt.% and (b) 4 wt.% CNT loadings

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Fig. 6

Shape, orientation and distribution of CNTs in simulated microstructure at the loading of: (a) 2 wt.% and (b) 4 wt.%

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Fig. 7

(a) Representation of the CZM for the CNT–PVA interface, and (b) interface (i.e., cohesive zone) in the composite microstructure

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Fig. 8

Machining model for composites with interface

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Fig. 9

Experimental setup with: (a) the Leica ultramicrotome machine; (b) closeup view of the composite sample with reciprocating arm; (c) tool geometry and sample in the setup (side view)

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Fig. 10

Experimental cutting force data for case 2

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Fig. 11

FE machining simulation showing failure, surface/subsurface damage, material shear, and chip formation when considering: (a) perfect bonding; and (b) CZM for the conditions of 400 nm DOC and 35 deg rake at 4 wt.% CNT loading (case 2)

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Fig. 12

Simulation results of microstructure-level machining model with interface (CZM)

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Fig. 13

Typical 3D surface topographies of the machined CNT–PVA composite samples, and their corresponding roughness profiles

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Fig. 14

Effect of interfacial strength on surface/subsurface damage for the 4 wt.% CNT–PVA composite at 800 nm DOC and 35 deg rake angle (case 4)



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