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Research Papers

# A Novel Shock Processing by High-Intensity Pulsed Ion Beam

[+] Author and Article Information
M. K. Lei, X. P. Zhu, C. Liu, J. P. Xin, X. G. Han, P. Li, Z. H. Dong, X. Wang, S. M. Miao

Surface Engineering Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 131(3), 031013 (May 28, 2009) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3139214 History: Received October 05, 2006; Revised April 17, 2009; Published May 28, 2009

## Abstract

A novel shock processing by high-intensity pulsed ion beam (HIPIB) is developed, referred to as ion beam shock processing (IBSP), for surface processing of components with high surface integrity. The IBSP utilizes effectively coupled thermal-dynamic effects of HIPIB irradiation onto materials, characterized by ultrafast surface remelting and solidification, and controlled ablation. As a result, using the IBSP treatment with HIPIB parameters with an ion energy of 200–400 keV and an ion current density of $50–400 A/cm2$ with a pulse width of 75 ns, i.e., a power density of $107–108 W/cm2$, hardening extending to tens and hundreds of micrometers in depth is achieved on pure Cu and 316L austenitic stainless steel, which is comparable to that of laser shock processing at about two orders higher power density, usually no less than $109–1010 W/cm2$. Significant improvements in the overall performance including wear and corrosion resistance, fatigue, and creep properties are found for IBSP treated pure Cu and 316L stainless steel, attributable to the formation of nonequilibrium microstructures into different depths of the processed materials, e.g., amorphous and/or nanocrystalline structure in the heat-affected zone, and high-density defects in the deeper regions with residual compressive stresses caused by shock wave propagation into substrate in which the former is not obtainable in conventional shock processing. Furthermore, purified and polished surfaces free of cracks can be obtained simultaneously under HIPIB irradiation, composing the completeness for effectively enhancing the surface integrity of the processed materials. The coupled thermal-dynamic effects of IBSP assure surface processing of high surface integrity for components, with improved physical and chemical properties and modified surface topography.

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## Figures

Figure 1

Typical waveforms of shock waves detected by lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectric sensor in metal (a) Cu and (b) Ti samples under HIPIB irradiation at a diode voltage of 300–350 kV and an ion current density of 350 A/cm2, where the waveform of the diode voltage (Ch1) is also shown

Figure 2

Surface morphology of the original metal (a) Cu sample, and those processed by IBSP with ten shots at ion current densities of (b) 100 A/cm2 and (c) 350 A/cm2, respectively

Figure 3

Surface morphology of the original (a) 316L stainless steel sample and the IBSP processed at an ion current density of 200 A/cm2 with (b) one shot, (c) five shots, and (d) ten shots, respectively

Figure 4

Cross-sectional SEM images of the original (a) metal Cu sample and those processed by IBSP with ten shots at ion current densities of (b) 100 A/cm2 and (c) 350 A/cm2, respectively

Figure 5

XRD patterns of 316L austenitic stainless steel processed by IBSP at an ion current density of 200 A/cm2 from one to ten shots, respectively

Figure 6

Cross-sectional TEM images (bright field) of 316L austenitic stainless steel processed by IBSP at an ion current density of 200 A/cm2 with ten shots: (a) original and observed at the different depths within (b) 1 μm and [(c) and (d)] 1–5 μm, respectively

Figure 7

(a) Surface microhardness and (b) the microhardness profiles of metal Cu samples processed by IBSP at an ion current density of 100–350 A/cm2 from one to ten shots, respectively

Figure 8

Microhardness profiles of 316L stainless steel processed by IBSP at an ion current density of 200 A/cm2 from one to ten shots, respectively

Figure 9

Friction coefficient versus sliding time of metal Cu samples processed by multishot IBSP at ion current densities of (a) 100 A/cm2 and (b) 350 A/cm2, respectively

Figure 10

Cross sections of worn tracks of metal Cu samples processed by IBSP at ion current densities of 100 A/cm2 and 350 A/cm2 with ten shots, respectively

Figure 11

Friction coefficient versus sliding time of 316L stainless steel processed by IBSP at an ion current density of 200 A/cm2 from one to ten shots, respectively

Figure 12

Friction coefficient and worn track size versus sliding time of 316L stainless steel processed by IBSP at an ion current density of 200 A/cm2 from one to ten shots, respectively

Figure 13

Potentiodynamic scanning anodic polarization curves of IBSP-processed 316L stainless steel samples measured in 0.5 mol/l H2SO4 solutions

Figure 14

Fatigue test of 316L stainless steel samples processed by IBSP at an ion current density of 200 A/cm2 with ten shots, using a cyclic load of σmax=480 MPa in a tension-tension mode with a strain ratio of 0.1 and a sine frequency of 20 Hz

Figure 15

(a) Creep strain versus testing time and (b) creep rupture life versus shot number of 316L stainless steel samples IBSP processed at 200 A/cm2, tested at a strain of 150 MPa and a temperature of 700°C

Figure 16

Principle of the IBSP technology in comparison with that of LSP

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