Research Papers

Process Sensitivity Analysis and Resolution Prediction for the Two Photon Polymerization of Micro/Nano Structures

[+] Author and Article Information
Nitin Uppal

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, 500 West First Street, Arlington, TX 76019

Panos S. Shiakolas1

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, 500 West First Street, Arlington, TX 76019shiakolas@uta.edu


Corresponding author.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 131(5), 051018 (Oct 01, 2009) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4000097 History: Received June 06, 2008; Revised August 09, 2009; Published October 01, 2009

Two photon polymerization (2PP) is a rapid prototyping technique for the fabrication of micro/nano structures from photosensitive polymers. The polymerization process and its resolution depend on the combination of various chemical and physical process parameters. In this research, statistical techniques are employed to evaluate the sensitivity of the 2PP process on the applied laser power, scanning speed, and concentration of photoinitiator. The experiments were performed using the ethoxylated (6) trimethylolpropane triacrylate (SR499-Sartomer) monomer and acyl phosphine oxide (Lucirin TPO-L-BASF) photoinitiator. A design of experiments approach is utilized to evaluate the effect of these process parameters at various set levels on the polymerized width and height. The proposed model is checked for interaction among the process parameters and multiple comparisons are performed to evaluate the statistically significant differences. Also, a detailed discussion of the model verification based on error analysis is performed and presented. A regression model is also developed for the prediction of polymerization resolution and the developed statistical model is experimentally verified. Finally, the developed model and the understanding acquired through the statistical analysis were used for the prototyping of various micro/nano structures.

Copyright © 2009 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 7

Representative structure fabricated for the verification of the predictive model using 2.56% photoinitiator concentration, 3 mm/min speed, and 13.5 mW power

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Figure 1

Schematic of the femtosecond laser system

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Figure 2

Example of the polymerized pattern used for measurements: (a) wall pattern (top view) and (b) SEM image of pattern (scale 100 μm)

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Figure 3

Change in the 2PP resolution as a function of power and scanning speed: (a) polymerized width and (b) polymerized height

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Figure 4

Height residual plot as a function of (a) power and (b) speed

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Figure 5

Normal probability plots

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Figure 6

Interaction plots for polymerized width

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Figure 8

Two photon polymerized 3D microstructures fabricated using the experimental results from this study: (a) diffraction grating (scale 100 μm), (b) microbridge (scale 300 μm), (c) prism grating (scale 500 μm), and (d) prism grating (scale 100 μm)



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