The Constant Force Component due to Material Separation and Its Contribution to the Size Effect in Specific Cutting Energy

[+] Author and Article Information
Sathyan Subbiah, Shreyes N. Melkote

The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 128(3), 811-815 (Nov 25, 2005) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2163363 History: Received December 07, 2004; Revised November 25, 2005

The contribution of material separation in cutting ductile metals to the constant force component, and, hence, to the size effect in specific cutting energy is explored in this paper. A force-decomposition-based framework is proposed to reconcile the varied reasons given in literature for the size effect. In this framework, the cutting force is broken down into three components: one that is decreasing, another that is increasing, and the third that remains constant, with decreasing uncut chip thickness. The last component is investigated by performing orthogonal cutting experiments on OFHC copper at high rake angles of up to 70deg in an attempt to isolate it. As the rake angle is increased, the resulting experimental data show a trend toward a constant cutting-force component independent of the uncut chip thickness. Visual evidence of ductile tearing ahead of the tool associated with material separation leading to chip formation is shown. The measured constant force and the force needed for ductile crack extension are then compared.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

SEM images of chip-work interface

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Strain in chip is less at 70deg than at 30deg

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

(a) Plot of cutting forces and (b) slope of cutting force



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