Fluid Performance Study for Groove Grinding a Nickel-Based Superalloy Using Electroplated Cubic Boron Nitride (CBN) Grinding Wheels

[+] Author and Article Information
Frank C. Gift, Wojciech Z. Misiolek

Industrial and Systems Engineering Department, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 126(3), 451-458 (Sep 07, 2004) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1763181 History: Received August 01, 2003; Revised November 01, 2003; Online September 07, 2004
Copyright © 2004 by ASME
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Harpster, A., 1991, “Grinding Superalloys with Plated CBN Wheels,” SME Superabrasives Conference, Chicago, Illinois.
Konig,  W., Yegenoglu,  K., and Stuckenholtz,  B., 1986, “Lower Grinding Costs and Better Workpiece Quality by High Performance Grinding with CBN Wheels,” Gear Technology, January/February Edition.
Hitchiner, M. P., 1999, “Technological Advances in Creep Feed Grinding of Aerospace Alloys with CBN” (Session 414: Nonconventional Technologies), Proceedings of the 3rd International Machining and Grinding Conference, SME, Cincinnati, Ohio, pp. 627–652.
Bush, J., 1993, “Advanced Plated CBN Grinding Technology,” IDA Diamond & CBN Ultrahard Materials Symposium, Windsor, Canada.
Carius, A. C., 1989, “Effects of Grinding Fluid Type and Delivery on CBN Wheel Performance,” SME Modern Grinding Technology Conference, Novi (Detroit), Michigan.
Engineer,  F., Guo,  C., and Malkin,  S., 1992, “Experimental Measurement of Fluid Flow Through the Grinding Zone,” ASME J. Ind., 114, pp. 61–66.
Guo,  C., and Malkin,  S., 1992, “Analysis of Fluid Flow through the Grinding Zone,” ASME J. Ind., 114, pp. 427–434.
Silliman, J. D., Ed., 1992, Cutting and Grinding Fluids: Selection and Application, 2nd Edition, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Michigan, Chapter 1.
Stokes,  R. J., and Valentine,  T. J., 1984, “Wear Mechanisms of ABN [CBN] Abrasive,” Industrial Diamond Review, 44, pp. 34–44.
Guptil, E., June 4, 2002, Pratt & Whitney, Personal Communication, F. C. Gift Jr. Editor.
Salmon, S. C., 1992, Modern Grinding Process Technology, McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, NY, Chap. 2.
Gift, F. C., Jr., 2003, “Analysis of Grinding Wheel Loading for Electroplated Cubic Boron Nitride Wheels Used with Water-based Lubricating Fluids, ” M.S. Thesis, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA.


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Illustration of the layout of fluid delivery system in the grinding setup, where feed (f) and wheel rotation (v) are in opposite directions
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Contrast in performance between the straight petroleum oil and the three water-based fluids in terms of cutting (tangential) force
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Optical stereomicroscope images of typical deposits observed on the grinding wheel surface after reaching failure in the water-based fluid trials, both separated and (b) adjoining deposits
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Single CBN grain encapsulated by adhering Ni-based superalloy deposit
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(a) SEM image showing chip adhesion on the rake face and clearance face of a CBN grain (b) accompanying schematic to illustrate features in the image
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Deposit adhesion on the rake face of the CBN abrasive with the bulk of the deposit capping the clearance face and adjacent abrasive grains
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Intimate contact between the deposit and top of the rake face (circled) is observed, with little interaction between the deposit underside and the bond matrix
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Sharp CBN abrasive grains are observed after 120 grinding passes in the straight oil product
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The neat oil fluid trial had (a) a surface clear of deposits, with (b) no significant signs of wear other than CBN grit pullout (circled)
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Image of new electroplated CBN grinding wheel with missing abrasive grains on the wheel surface
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Images of CBN abrasive grains from a control sample
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The rough faces of the CBN grains commonly observed in the control sample shown on (a) several different faces and (b) at high magnification
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Schematic of (a) three abrasive grains and how they might be oriented on the wheel surface and (b) the mechanics of chip formation
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Schematic of the (a) orientation of fluid spray in a conventional scrubber nozzle layout and (b) its relation to a chip adhering to the CBN grain’s rake face
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Fluid flow directions that would be effective in shearing adhering chips off of the CBN grain
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Proposed layout of scrubber nozzles, oriented on both sides of the wheel (A/A and B/B at different locations within the depth of the page) for high pressure fluid delivery that is effective in wheel cleaning



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