Thermal Stress Development During Vacuum Arc Remelting and Permanent Mold Casting of Ingots

[+] Author and Article Information
M. K. Alam

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio

S. L. Semiatin

AFRL/MLLM, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

Z. Ali

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio University, Athens, OH

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 120(4), 755-763 (Nov 01, 1998) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2830216 History: Received October 01, 1995; Revised August 01, 1997; Online January 23, 2008


The development of thermal stresses in ingots during the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) as well as specialized permanent mold casting (PMC) process was modeled via numerical solution of the two-dimensional, nonsteady-state heat conduction and stress equilibrium equations. The numerical analysis was carried out in conjunction with experimental studies of the mechanical properties and microstructure of a cracked VAR titanium aluminide ingot. Numerical solutions were obtained for different values of ingot diameter, crucible-ingot interface heat transfer coefficients, and lengths of the melted-and-resolidified ingot. For both VAR and PMC, model predictions revealed that the maximum tensile thermal stresses are developed at the bottom of the ingot; the magnitude of such stresses increases with ingot diameter and the magnitude of the interface heat transfer coefficients. The microstructural analysis of a cracked ingot indicated that the thermal cracking occurred in the temperature range where the alloy has very little ductility. The predicted development of large tensile stresses correlates well with observations of thermal cracking during VAR of near-gamma titanium aluminide alloy ingots. By contrast, the predicted thermal stresses developed during PMC are lower, thus suggesting an attractive alternative to VAR to obtain sound, crack-free ingots.

Copyright © 1998 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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