Research Papers

Cryogenic Machining of Titanium Ti-5553 Alloy

[+] Author and Article Information
Yusuf Kaynak

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Technology Faculty,
Marmara University,
Goztepe Campus, Kadikoy,
34722 Istanbul, Turkey
e-mail: yusuf.kaynak@marmara.edu.tr, yusuf_kaynak@yahoo.com

Armin Gharibi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences,
Marmara University,
Goztepe Campus, Kadikoy,
34722 Istanbul, Turkey
e-mail: armin.gharibi@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 26, 2018; final manuscript received January 1, 2019; published online February 28, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Radu Pavel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(4), 041012 (Feb 28, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1488; doi: 10.1115/1.4042605 History: Received June 26, 2018; Accepted January 02, 2019

Titanium alloy Ti-5Al-5V-3Cr-0.5Fe (Ti-5553) is a new generation of near-beta titanium alloy that is commonly used in the aerospace industry. Machining is one of the manufacturing methods to produce parts that are made of this near-beta alloy. This study presents the machining performance of new generation near-beta alloys, namely, Ti-5553, by focusing on a high-speed cutting process under cryogenic cooling conditions and dry machining. The machining experiments were conducted under a wide range of cutting speeds, including high speeds that used liquid nitrogen (LN2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) as cryogenic coolants. The experimental data on the cutting temperature, tool wear, force components, chip breakability, dimensional accuracy, and surface integrity characteristics are presented and were analyzed to evaluate the machining process of this alloy and resulting surface characteristics. This study shows that cryogenic machining improved the machining performance of the Ti-5553 alloy by substantially reducing the tool wear, cutting temperature, and dimensional deviation of the machined parts. The cryogenic machining also produced shorter chips as compared to dry machining.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Hua, K., Xue, X. Y., Kou, H. C., Fan, J. K., Tang, B., and Li, J. S., 2014, “High Temperature Deformation Behaviour of Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr During Thermomechanical Processing,” Mater. Res. Innov., 18, pp. S4-202–S4-206. [CrossRef]
Hua, K., Xue, X. Y., Kou, H. C., Fan, J. K., Tang, B., and Li, J. S., 2014, “Characterization of Hot Deformation Microstructure of a Near Beta Titanium Alloy Ti-5553,” J. Alloys Compd., 615, pp. 531–537. [CrossRef]
Dehghan-Manshadi, A., and Dippenaar, R. J., 2011, “Development of α-Phase Morphologies During Low Temperature Isothermal Heat Treatment of a Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr Alloy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 528(3), pp. 1833–1839. [CrossRef]
Nag, S., Banerjee, R., Hwang, J. Y., Harper, M., and Fraser, H. L., 2009, “Elemental Partitioning Between α and β Phases in the Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr–0.5 Fe (Ti-5553) Alloy,” Philos. Mag., 89(6), pp. 535–552. [CrossRef]
Ezugwu, E., Bonney, J., and Yamane, Y., 2003, “An Overview of the Machinability of Aeroengine Alloys,” J. Mater. Proc. Technol., 134(2), pp. 233–253. [CrossRef]
Ezugwu, E., and Wang, Z., 1997, “Titanium Alloys and Their Machinability—A Review,” J. Mater. Proc. Technol., 68(3), pp. 262–274. [CrossRef]
Arrazola, P.-J., Garay, A., Iriarte, L. M., Armendia, M., Marya, S., and Le Maitre, F., 2009, “Machinability of Titanium Alloys (Ti6Al4V and Ti555.3),” J. Mater. Proc. Technol., 209(5), pp. 2223–2230. [CrossRef]
Wagner, V., Baili, M., and Dessein, G., 2015, “The Relationship Between the Cutting Speed, Tool Wear, and Chip Formation During Ti-5553 Dry Cutting,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 76(5–8), pp. 893–912. [CrossRef]
Baili, M., Wagner, V., Dessein, G., Sallaberry, J., and Lallement, D., 2011, “An Experimental Investigation of Hot Machining With Induction to Improve Ti-5553 Machinability,” Appl. Mech. Mater., 62, pp. 67–76. [CrossRef]
Sun, Y., Huang, B., Puleo, D. A., and Jawahir, I. S., 2015, “Enhanced Machinability of Ti-5553 Alloy From Cryogenic Machining: Comparison With MQL and Flood-Cooled Machining and Modeling,” Proc. CIRP, 31, pp. 477–482. [CrossRef]
Kaynak, Y., Gharibi, A., and Ozkutuk, M., 2017, “Experimental and Numerical Study of Chip Formation in Orthogonal Cutting of Ti-5553 Alloy: The Influence of Cryogenic, MQL, and High Pressure Coolant Supply,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 94, pp. 1–18.
Braham-Bouchnak, T., Germain, G., Morel, A., and Furet, B., 2015, “Influence of High-Pressure Coolant Assistance on the Machinability of the Titanium Alloy Ti555-3,” Mach. Sci. Technol., 19(1), pp. 134–151. [CrossRef]
Wagner, V., Baili, M., Dessein, G., and Lallement, D., 2011, “Experimental Study of Coated Carbide Tools Behaviour: Application for Ti-5-5-5-3 Turning,” Int. J. Mach. Mach. Mater., 9(3), pp. 233–248.
Ezugwu, E., 2005, “Key Improvements in the Machining of Difficult-to-Cut Aerospace Superalloys,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 45(12), pp. 1353–1367. [CrossRef]
Ezugwu, E., and Bonney, J., 2004, “Effect of High-Pressure Coolant Supply When Machining Nickel-Base, Inconel 718, Alloy With Coated Carbide Tools,” J. Mater. Proc. Technol., 153, pp. 1045–1050. [CrossRef]
Kaynak, Y., Karaca, H. E., Noebe, R. D., and Jawahir, I. S., 2013, “Tool-Wear Analysis in Cryogenic Machining of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys: A Comparison of Tool-Wear Performance With Dry and MQL Machining,” Wear, 306, pp. 51–63. [CrossRef]
Machai, C., and Biermann, D., 2011, “Machining of β-Titanium-Alloy Ti–10V–2Fe–3Al Under Cryogenic Conditions: Cooling With Carbon Dioxide Snow,” J. Mater. Proc. Technol., 211(6), pp. 1175–1183. [CrossRef]
Shokrani, A., Dhokia, V., Munoz-Escalona, P., and Newman, S. T., 2013, “State-of-the-Art Cryogenic Machining and Processing,” Int. J. Comput. Integr. Manuf., 26(7), pp. 616–648. [CrossRef]
Courbon, C., Pusavec, F., Dumont, F., Rech, J., and Kopac, J., 2013, “Tribological Behaviour of Ti6Al4V and Inconel718 Under Dry and Cryogenic Conditions—Application to the Context of Machining With Carbide Tools,” Tribol. Int., 66, pp. 72–82. [CrossRef]
Jawahir, I. S., Attia, H., Biermann, D., Duflou, J., Klocke, F., Meyer, D., Newman, S. T., Pusavec, F., Putz, M., Rech, J., and Schulze, V., 2016, “Cryogenic Manufacturing Processes,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 65(2), pp. 713–736. [CrossRef]
Trabelsi, S., Morel, A., Germain, G., and Bouaziz, Z., 2017, “Tool Wear and Cutting Forces Under Cryogenic Machining of Titanium Alloy (Ti17),” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 91(5–8), pp. 1493–1505. [CrossRef]
Huang, C., Zhao, Y., Xin, S., Zhou, W., Li, Q., and Zeng, W., 2017, “Effect of Microstructure on Tensile Properties of Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr–1Zr Alloy,” J. Alloys Compd., 693, pp. 582–591. [CrossRef]
Kar, S. K., Ghosh, A., Fulzele, N., and Bhattacharjee, A., 2013, “Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of a Near Beta Ti Alloy, Ti-5553 Under Different Processing Conditions,” Mater. Charact., 81, pp. 37–48. [CrossRef]
Nag, S., Banerjee, R., Srinivasan, R., Hwang, J. Y., Harper, M., and Fraser, H. L., 2009, “ω-Assisted Nucleation and Growth of α Precipitates in the Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr–0.5 Fe β Titanium Alloy,” Acta Mater., 57(7), pp. 2136–2147. [CrossRef]
Oxley, P. L. B., 1990, The Mechanics of Machining: An Analytical Approach to Assessing Machinability, Ellis Horwood Publisher, Chichester.
Knight, W. A., and Boothroyd, G., 2005, Fundamentals of Metal Machining and Machine Tools, Vol. 198, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Campbell, F. C., Jr., 2011, Manufacturing Technology for Aerospace Structural Materials, Elsevier, New York.
Shokrani, A., Dhokia, V., and Newman, S. T., 2012, “Environmentally Conscious Machining of Difficult-to-Machine Materials With Regard to Cutting Fluids,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 57, pp. 83–101. [CrossRef]
Jawahir, I. S., Ghosh, R., Fang, X. D., and Li, P. X., 1995, “An Investigation of the Effects of Chip Flow on Tool-Wear in Machining With Complex Grooved Tools,” Wear, 184(2), pp. 145–154. [CrossRef]
Guo, Y., Li, W., and Jawahir, I. S., 2009, “Surface Integrity Characterization and Prediction in Machining of Hardened and Difficult-to-Machine Alloys: A State-of-Art Research Review and Analysis,” Mach. Sci. Technol., 13(4), pp. 437–470. [CrossRef]
Manivannan, R., and Kumar, M. P., 2017, “Improving the Machining Performance Characteristics of the µEDM Drilling Process by the Online Cryogenic Cooling Approach,” Mater. Manuf. Proc., 33(4), pp. 390–396. [CrossRef]
Kaynak, Y., 2014, “Evaluation of Machining Performance in Cryogenic Machining of Inconel 718 and Comparison With Dry and MQL Machining,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 72(5–8), pp. 919–933. [CrossRef]
Stephenson, D. A., and Agapiou, J. S., 2016, Metal Cutting Theory and Practice, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Wanigarathne, P. C., Liew, J., Wang, X., Dillon, O. W., Jr., and Jawahir, I. S., 2004, “Assessment of Process Sustainability for Product Manufacture in Machining Operations,” Proceedings of the Global Conference on Sustainable Product Development and Life Cycle Engineering, Berlin, Germany, September 29–October 1.
Jawahir, I. S., 1990, “On the Controllability of Chip Breaking Cycles and Modes of Chip Breaking in Metal Machining,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 39(1), pp. 47–51. [CrossRef]
Qin, D., Lu, Y., Guo, D., Zheng, L., Liu, Q., and Zhou, L., 2013, “Tensile Deformation and Fracture of Ti–5Al–5V–5Mo–3Cr–1.5 Zr–0.5 Fe Alloy at Room Temperature,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 587, pp. 100–109. [CrossRef]
Mishra, R. S., Stolyarov, V. V., Echer, C., Valiev, R. Z., and Mukherjee, A. K., 2001, “Mechanical Behavior and Superplasticity of a Severe Plastic Deformation Processed Nanocrystalline Ti–6Al–4V Alloy,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 298(1), pp. 44–50. [CrossRef]
Groover, M. P., 2007, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing: Materials Processes, and Systems, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
Germain, G., Morel, A., and Braham-Bouchnak, T., 2013, “Identification of Material Constitutive Laws Representative of Machining Conditions for Two Titanium Alloys: Ti6Al4V and Ti555-3,” J. Eng. Mater. Technol., 135(3), 031002. [CrossRef]
Kaynak, Y., Gharibi, A., Yilmaz, U., Koklu, U., and Aslantas, K., 2018, “A Comparison of Flood Cooling, Minimum Quantity Lubrication and High Pressure Coolant on Machining and Surface Integrity of Titanium Ti-5553 Alloy,” J. Manuf. Proc., 34, pp. 503–512. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for cryogenic machining application

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Example of measured temperature profile

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Measured maximum temperature during machining under dry, LN2, and CO2 conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Measured maximum flank wear under dry, LN2, and CO2 conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Tool–chip contact area resulting from dry, LN2, and CO2 machining conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cross section of cutting tools used under dry, LN2, and CO2 conditions at 210 m/min and comparison with fresh tool

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

3D images of cutting tools used in various conditions at 210 m/min cutting speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Temperature versus hardness relationship for tungsten carbide cutting tool, adapted from Ref. [38]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

The main cutting force under dry, LN2, and CO2 machining conditions at varying cutting speeds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The feed force under dry, LN2, and CO2 machining conditions at varying cutting speeds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The radial force under dry, LN2, and CO2 machining conditions at varying cutting speeds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

The effects of strain rate and temperature on deformation response of the Ti-5553 alloy adapted from Ref. [39]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Specific cutting forces and material removal rate under dry, LN2, and CO2 machining conditions at varying cutting speeds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Generated chips under dry, LN2, and CO2 machining conditions at varying cutting speeds

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Average chip thickness as a function of cutting speed for dry, LN2, and CO2 machining conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Dimensional deviation of workpiece produced resulting from dry, LN2, and CO2 machining conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

The effects of various machining conditions on surface and subsurface microhardness of machined parts at 120 m/min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

XRD analysis of parts machined under dry, LN2, and CO2 conditions at 120 m/min cutting speed



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In