0
Research Papers

Table-Based Volumetric Error Compensation of Large Five-Axis Machine Tools

[+] Author and Article Information
Jennifer Creamer

The Boeing Company,
P.O. Box 516,
S245-1003,
St. Louis, MO 63166
e-mail: jennifer.r.creamer@boeing.com

Patrick M. Sammons

Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
Missouri University of Science and Technology,
194 Toomey Hall,
400 W 13th Street,
Rolla, MO 65401
e-mail: pmsd44@mst.edu

Douglas A. Bristow

Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
Missouri University of Science and Technology,
194 Toomey Hall,
400 W 13th Street,
Rolla, MO 65401
e-mail: dbristow@mst.edu

Robert G. Landers

Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering,
Missouri University of Science and Technology,
194 Toomey Hall,
400 W 13th Street,
Rolla, MO 65401
e-mail: landersr@mst.edu

Philip L. Freeman

The Boeing Company,
4249 Crosspoint Dr.,
7856-4249,
Ladson, SC 29456
e-mail: philip.l.freeman@boeing.com

Samuel J. Easley

The Boeing Company,
P.O. Box 516,
S245-1003,
St. Louis, MO 63166
e-mail: samuel.j.easley@boeing.com

Manuscript received December 2, 2015; final manuscript received July 1, 2016; published online September 21, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Xiaoping Qian.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 139(2), 021011 (Sep 21, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-15-1631; doi: 10.1115/1.4034399 History: Received December 02, 2015; Revised July 01, 2016

This paper presents a geometric error compensation method for large five-axis machine tools. Compared to smaller machine tools, the longer axis travels and bigger structures of a large machine tool make them more susceptible to complicated, position-dependent geometric errors. The compensation method presented in this paper uses tool tip measurements recorded throughout the axis space to construct an explicit model of a machine tool's geometric errors from which a corresponding set of compensation tables are constructed. The measurements are taken using a laser tracker, permitting rapid error data gathering at most locations in the axis space. Two position-dependent geometric error models are considered in this paper. The first model utilizes a six degree-of-freedom kinematic error description at each axis. The second model is motivated by the structure of table compensation solutions and describes geometric errors as small perturbations to the axis commands. The parameters of both models are identified from the measurement data using a maximum likelihood estimator. Compensation tables are generated by projecting the error model onto the compensation space created by the compensation tables available in the machine tool controller. The first model provides a more intuitive accounting of simple geometric errors than the second; however, it also increases the complexity of projecting the errors onto compensation tables. Experimental results on a commercial five-axis machine tool are presented and analyzed. Despite significant differences in the machine tool error descriptions, both methods produce similar results, within the repeatability of the machine tool. Reasons for this result are discussed. Analysis of the models and compensation tables reveals significant complicated, and unexpected kinematic behavior in the experimental machine tool. A particular strength of the proposed methodology is the simultaneous generation of a complete set of compensation tables that accurately captures complicated kinematic errors independent of whether they arise from expected and unexpected sources.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Bringmann, B. , Besuchet, J. P. , and Rohr, L. , 2008, “ Systematic Evaluation of Calibration Methods,” CIRP Ann. –Manuf. Technol., 57(1), pp. 529–532. [CrossRef]
ISO, 2012, “ Test Code for Machine Tools Part I: Geometric Accuracy of Machine Tools Operating Under No-Load or Quasi-Static Conditions,” International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, Standard No. ISO 230-1.
Ibaraki, S. , Kimura, Y. , Nagai, Y. , and Nishikawa, S. , 2015, “ Formulation of Influence of Machine Geometric Errors on Five-Axis On-Machine Scanning Measurement by Using a Laser Displacement Sensor,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(2), p. 021013. [CrossRef]
Tsutsumi, M. , and Saito, A. , 2003, “ Identification and Compensation of Systematic Deviations Particular to 5-Axis Machining Centers,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 43(8), pp. 771–780. [CrossRef]
Zargarbashi, S. H. H. , and Mayer, J. R. R. , 2006, “ Assessment of Machine Tool Trunnion Axis Motion Error, Using Magnetic Double Ball Bar,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 46(14), pp. 1823–1834. [CrossRef]
Weikert, S. , 2004, “ R-Test, a New Device for Accuracy Measurements on 5-Axis Machine Tools,” CIRP Ann. –Manuf. Technol., 53(1), pp. 429–432. [CrossRef]
Ibaraki, S. , Oyama, C. , and Otsubo, H. , 2011, “ Construction of an Error Map of Rotary Axes on a 5-Axis Machining Center by Static R-Test,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 51(3), pp. 190–200. [CrossRef]
Erkan, T. , and Mayer, J. R. R. , 2010, “ A Cluster Analysis Applied to Volumetric Errors of 5-Axis Machine Tools Obtained by Probing an Uncalibrated Artifact,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 59(1), pp. 539–542. [CrossRef]
Ibaraki, S. , Iritani, T. , and Matsushita, T. , 2012, “ Calibration of Location Errors of Rotary Axes on 5-Axis Machine Tools by On-the-Machine Measurement Using a Touch-Trigger Probe,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 58(1), pp. 44–53. [CrossRef]
Jung, J. , Choi, J. , and Lee, S. , 2006, “ Machining Accuracy Enhancement by Compensating for Volumetric Errors of a Machine Tool and On-Machine Measurement,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 174(1), pp. 56–66. [CrossRef]
Hong, C. , Ibaraki, S. , and Matsubara, A. , 2001, “ Influence of Position Dependent Error of Rotary Axes on a Machining Test of Cone Frustram by 5-Axis Machine Tools,” Precis. Eng., 35(1), pp. 1–11. [CrossRef]
Ibaraki, S. , and Knapp, W. , 2012, “ Indirect Measurement of Volumetric Accuracy for 3-Axis and 5-Axis Machine Tools: A Review,” Int. J. Autom. Technol., 6(2), pp. 110–124.
Umetsu, K. , Furutnani, R. , Osawa, S. , Takatsuji, T. , and Kurosawa, T. , 2005, “ Geometric Calibration of a Coordinate Measuring Machine Using a Laser Tracking System,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 16(12), pp. 2466–2472. [CrossRef]
Ibaraki, S. , Hata, T. , Yano, T. , Takatsuji, T. , Osawa, S. , and Sata, O. , 2009, “ Estimation of the Three-Dimensional Volumetric Errors of Machine Tools by a Laser Tracker,” Asian Symposium for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, Kitakyushu, Japan.
Schwenke, H. , Franke, M. , and Hannaford, J. , 2005, “ Error Mapping of CMMs and Machine Tools by a Single Tracking Interferometer,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 54(1), pp. 475–478. [CrossRef]
Schwenke, H. , Schmitt, R. , Jatzkowskib, P. , and Warmanna, P. , 2009, “ On-the-Fly Calibration of Linear and Rotary Axes of Machine Tools and CMMs Using a Tracking Interferometer,” CIRP Ann. –Manuf. Technol., 58(1), pp. 477–480. [CrossRef]
Freeman, P. , 2006, “ A Novel Means of Software Compensation for Robots and Machine Tools,” Aerospace Manufacturing and Automated Fastening Conference and Exhibition, Toulouse, France, SAE Paper No. 2006-01-3167.
Nubiola, A. , and Bonev, I. , 2012, “ Absolute Calibration of an ABB IRB1600 Robot Using a Laser Tracker,” Rob. Comput. Integr. Manuf., 29(1), pp. 236–245. [CrossRef]
Denavit, J. , and Hartenberg, R. S. , 1955, “ A Kinematic Notation for Lower Pair Mechanisms Based on Matrices,” ASME J. Appl. Mech., 22, pp. 215–221.
Hayati, S. , 1983, “ Robot Arm Geometric Parameter Estimation,” 22nd IEEE International Conference on Decision Control, San Antonio, TX, pp. 1477–1483.
Veitschegger, W. K. , and Wu, C. H. , 1988, “ Robot Calibration and Compensation,” IEEE J. Rob. Autom., 4(6), pp. 643–656. [CrossRef]
Sheth, C. , and Uicker, J. J. , 1972, “ IMP (Integrated Mechanism Program), a Computer-Aided Design Analysis System for Mechanisms and Linkages,” ASME J. Eng. Ind., 94(2), pp. 454–464. [CrossRef]
Soons, J. , Theuws, F. , and Schellekens, P. , 1992, “ Modeling the Errors of Multi-Axis Machines: A General Methodology,” Precis. Eng., 14(1), pp. 5–19. [CrossRef]
Kiridena, V. S. B. , and Ferreira, P. M. , 1994, “ Kinematic Modeling of Quasistatic Errors of 3-Axis Machining Centers,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 34(1), pp. 85–100. [CrossRef]
Zhuang, H. , Roth, Z. S. , and Hamano, F. , 1992, “ A Complete and Parametrically Continuous Kinematic Model for Robot Manipulators,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom., 8(4), pp. 451–463. [CrossRef]
Fan, J. W. , Guan, J. L. , Wang, W. C. , Luo, O. , Zhang, L. X. , and Wang, L. Y. , 2002, “ A Universal Modeling Method for the Enhancement the Volumetric Accuracy of CNC Machine Tools,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 129(1–3), pp. 624–628. [CrossRef]
Yu, Z. , Tiemin, L. , and Xiaoqiang, T. , 2011, “ Geometric Error Modeling of Machine Tools Based on Screw Theory,” International Conference on Advances in Engineering, Beijing, China, pp. 845–849.
Chen, I. M. , Yang, G. , Tan, C. T. , and Yeo, S. , 2001, “ Local POE Model for Robot Kinematic Calibration,” Mech. Mach. Theory, 36(1), pp. 1215–1239. [CrossRef]
He, R. , Zhao, S. , and Yang, S. , 2010, “ Kinematic-Parameter Identification for Serial-Robot Calibration Based on POE Formula,” IEEE Trans. Rob., 26(3), pp. 411–423. [CrossRef]
Lin, Y. , and Shen, Y. , 2003, “ Modelling of 5-Axis Machine Tool Metrology Models Using the Matrix Summation Approach,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 21(4), pp. 243–248. [CrossRef]
Mooring, B. W. , Roth, Z. S. , and Driels, M. R. , 1991, Fundamentals of Manipulator Calibration, Wiley, New York.
Sartori, S. , and Zhang, G. X. , 1995, “ Geometric Error Measurement and Compensation of Machines,” CIRP Ann.– Manuf. Technol., 44(2), pp. 599–609. [CrossRef]
Nojedeh, M. V. , Habibi, M. , and Arezoo, B. , 2011, “ Tool Path Accuracy Enhancement Through Geometrical Error Compensation,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 51(6), pp. 471–482. [CrossRef]
Gupta, K. C. , 1986, “ Kinematic Analysis of Manipulators Using the Zero Reference Position Description,” Int. J. Rob. Res., 5(2), pp. 5–13. [CrossRef]
Mir, Y. A. , Mayer, J. R. R. , and Fortin, C. , 2002, “ Tool Path Error Prediction of a 5-Axis Machine Tool With Geometric Errors,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B, 216(5), pp. 697–712. [CrossRef]
Meggiolaro, M. A. , and Dubowsky, S. , 2000, “ An Analytical Method to Eliminate the Redundant Parameters in Robot Calibration,” 2000 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, San Francisco, CA, Apr. 24–28, pp. 3609–3615.
Hollerbach, C. , Wampler, J. , and Arai, T. , 1995, “ An Implicit Loop Method for Kinematic Calibration and Its Application to Closed-Chain Mechanisms,” IEEE Trans. Rob. Autom., 11(5), pp. 710–724. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Illustration of nominal and actual axis coordinate frames where Ek describes transformation from nominal frame k to actual frame k'

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Industrial five-axis machine tool used for experimental studies conducted in this paper

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Diagram of axis kinematics for industrial five-axis machine tool

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Standard deviation for laser tracker repeatability

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Illustration of tool length measurement

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Distribution of measurement points used for model identification. Large circles show where points were removed due to collision avoidance (CA) and line of sight (LOS) constraints.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Histogram of identification measurements for nominal, 6DoF, and AP models

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Compensation table functions generated from AP and 6DoF models

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Histogram of residuals between measured and commanded positions using the generated compensation tables

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Experimental results for rotation test

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In