This work presents the atomization characteristics and dynamics of water-in-heptane (W/H) emulsions injected into a gaseous crossflow. W/H mixtures were tested while varying momentum flux ratios and aerodynamic Weber numbers. Different injector orifice diameters and orifice length-to-diameter ratios were used to test the generality of the results.
The atomization properties of W/H mixtures were compared with properties of neat water and neat heptane to evaluate the effect of an emulsion on droplet sizing, cross-sectional stability and dispersion, and jet penetration depth. Liquid dynamics were extracted through analyzing instantaneous spray measurements and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) on high-speed video recordings of the atomization processes. Correlations were proposed to establish preliminary relationships between fundamental spray processes and test conditions. These correlations allowed for emulsion behavior to be compared with neat liquid behavior.
The use of emulsions induces greater spray instability than through using neat liquids, likely due to the difficulty in injecting a stable emulsion. Neat liquid correlations were produced and successfully predicted various spray measurements. These correlations, however, indicate that injector geometry has an effect on spray properties which need to be addressed independently. The emulsions are unable to adhere to the neat liquid correlations suggesting that an increased number of correlation terms are required to adequately predict emulsion behavior.