Research Papers

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101001-101001-11. doi:10.1115/1.4040542.

In this study, ultrafine grained Al5052/Cu multilayered composite has been produced by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) and fracture properties have been studied using plane stress fracture toughness. The fracture toughness has been investigated for the unprocessed specimens, primary sandwich and first, second, and third cycles of ARB process by ASTM E561 and compact tension (CT) specimens. Also, the microstructure and mechanical properties have been investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, uniaxial tensile tests, and microhardness measurements. The value of plane stress fracture toughness for the ultrafine grained Al5052/Cu composite increased by increasing the number of ARB cycles, continuously from the primary sandwich to end of the third cycle. The maximum value of 59.1 MPa m1/2 has been obtained that it is about 2.77 and 4.05 more than Al5052 and pure Cu (unprocessed specimens). This phenomenon indicated that ARB process and the addition of copper to aluminum alloy could increase the value of fracture toughness to more than three times. The results showed that by increasing the ARB cycles, the thickness of copper layers reduced and after the fifth cycle, the excellent uniformity of Cu layers achieved. By increasing the number of ARB cycles, the microhardness of both aluminum and copper layers have been significantly increased. The tensile strength of the sandwich has been enhanced continually, and the maximum value of 566.5 MPa has been achieved.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101002-101002-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040321.

In this study, ultrasonic assisted drilling (UAD) is performed to investigate the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on common difficulties existed in conventional drilling (CD). UAD is a promising and advanced technique by which a harmonic movement with high frequency and low amplitude is superimposed on the movement of work material or cutting tool. The study is conducted both experimentally and numerically; at first, a UAD system is designed, manufactured, and carried out on a milling machine and then experimental tests are accomplished. In the following, experimental results are supported by the help of three-dimensional (3D) finite element simulation. Finally, the dependent parameters such as the burr height and cylindricity of the ultrasonically and conventionally drilled workpiece are measured and compared. Briefly, it was proved that the intermittent movement of drill bit in the direction of feed rate results in broken and discontinuous chips by which built-up-edge (BUE) is reduced and hole quality is improved. In addition, the burr height, which is known as unwanted projection of material at the exit surface of pieces, can notably decrease, if UAD is considered.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101003-101003-12. doi:10.1115/1.4040620.

Leakage directly affects the functional behavior of a product in engineering practice, and surface topography is one of the main factors in static seal to prevent leakage. This paper aims at monitoring the leakage in static sealing interface, using three-dimensional (3D) surface topography as an indicator. The 3D surface is measured by a high definition metrology (HDM) instrument that can generate millions of data points representing the entire surface. The monitoring approach proposes a series of novel surface leakage parameters including virtual gasket, contact area percentage (CAP), void volume (VV), and relative void volume (SWvoid) as indicators. An individual control chart is adopted to monitor the leakage surface of the successive machining process. Meantime, based on the Persson contact mechanics and percolation theory, the threshold of leakage parameter is found using finite element modeling (FEM). Experimental results indicate that the proposed monitoring method is valid to precontrol the machining process and prevent leakage occurring.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101004-101004-13. doi:10.1115/1.4040621.

This paper presents an analytical computation of temperature field evolved in a directed energy deposition process, using single-bead walls as illustrating examples. Essentially, the temperature field evolution during the deposition of a wall is computed by super-position of the temperature field generated by the laser source depositing the current bead and that induced from each of the past beads (layers). First, the transient solution to a point heat source in a semi-infinite body is applied to describe each individual temperature field. Then, to better describe temperature contribution from a past bead, a pair of virtual heat sources with positive and negative powers is assigned for each past bead to compute the temperature field under cooling. In addition, mirrored heat sources through a reflexion technique are introduced to define adiabatic boundaries of the part and to account for substrate thickness. In the end, three depositions of Ti-6AL-4V walls with different geometries and interlayer dwell times on an Optomec® laser engineering net shaping (LENS) system are used to validate the proposed analytical computation, where predicted temperatures at several locations of the substrate show reasonable agreement with the in situ temperature measurements with prediction error rate ranging from 12% to 27%. Furthermore, temperature distributions predicted by the proposed model are compared to finite element simulations. The proposed analytical computation for temperature field could be potentially used in model-based feedback control for thermal history in the deposition, which could affect microstructure evolution and other properties of the final part.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101005-101005-9. doi:10.1115/1.4040618.

Milling chatters caused by the regenerative effect is one of the major limitations in increasing the machining efficiency and accuracy of milling operations. This paper studies robust active chatter control for milling processes with variable pitch cutters whose dynamics are governed by multidelay nonlinear differential equations. We propose a state feedback controller based on linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach that can enlarge multiple stability domains in the stability lobe diagram (SLD) while the controller gain is minimized. Numerical simulations of active magnetic bearing systems demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101006-101006-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040623.

During machining, burrs are produced along a part's edges, which can affect a final product lifetime or its efficiency. Moreover, time-consuming and expensive techniques are needed to be applied to remove such burrs. Therefore, companies attempt to reduce burrs formation during machining by manipulating the cutting conditions. This study aims to analyze and quantify the effect of a wide number of parameters on burr formation, resulting from different mechanisms, during orthogonal cutting of AlSi alloys. A highly developed experimental methodology combining high-speed camera recording, laser scanning, and in situ deburring system is used for this study. A statistical analysis is then applied to evaluate relations between controlled parameters and the occurrence of exit burrs morphologies. The results show that the uncut chip thickness influences burr types distribution along the exit edge and chamfer geometry. Among the cutting parameters and tool geometry, tool rake angle is the main parameter affecting burr height. Finally, it is found that none of the burrs geometrical characteristics ranges are piloted by cutting parameters or tool geometry. The assumption of a possible microstructural influence on these outputs is made.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101007-101007-9. doi:10.1115/1.4040619.

Additive manufacturing is driving major innovations in many areas such as biomedical engineering. Recent advances have enabled three-dimensional (3D) printing of biocompatible materials and cells into complex 3D functional living tissues and organs using bio-printable materials (i.e., bioink). Inkjet-based bioprinting fabricates the tissue and organ constructs by ejecting droplets onto a substrate. Compared with microextrusion-based and laser-assisted bioprinting, it is very difficult to predict and control the droplet formation process (e.g., droplet velocity and volume). To address this issue, this paper presents a new data-driven approach to predicting droplet velocity and volume in the inkjet-based bioprinting process. An imaging system was used to monitor the droplet formation process. To investigate the effects of polymer concentration, excitation voltage, dwell time, and rise time on droplet velocity and volume, a full factorial design of experiments (DOE) was conducted. Two predictive models were developed to predict droplet velocity and volume using ensemble learning. The accuracy of the two predictive models was measured using the root-mean-square error (RMSE), relative error (RE), and coefficient of determination (R2). Experimental results have shown that the predictive models are capable of predicting droplet velocity and volume with sufficient accuracy.

Topics: Drops , Bioprinting , Modeling
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101008-101008-7. doi:10.1115/1.4040724.

Expanding performance of friction power in material processing techniques, considerably improves the process efficiency while decreases required load and increases imposed strain by the localized material softening. This paper proposes friction-assisted tube forming (FATF) and friction-assisted tube extrusion (FATE) to deform cylindrical tubes for desirable radius and thickness. These methods were successfully examined on commercially pure copper tubes. Finite element (FE) analyses were executed to simulate heat generation, temperature, and strain fields. Using friction power in the presented methods significantly reduced processing force and enhanced imposed strain. Therefore, FATF and FATE show a great capability to forming and extrusion of the cylindrical tubes with minimum processing power. Mechanical properties of the processed tubes showed considerable changes in which yield strength and ultimate tensile strength increased 4.6 and 1.6 times greater than those from the initial values. Dynamically recrystallized fine grains with mean size of 8.3 μm were obtained compared with 60 μm for the annealed sample.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101009-101009-14. doi:10.1115/1.4040615.

The goal of this work is to understand the effect of process conditions on lack of fusion porosity in parts made using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM) process, and subsequently, to detect the onset of process conditions that lead to lack of fusion-related porosity from in-process sensor data. In pursuit of this goal, the objectives of this work are twofold: (1) quantify the count (number), size and location of pores as a function of three LPBF process parameters, namely, the hatch spacing (H), laser velocity (V), and laser power (P); and (2) monitor and identify process conditions that are liable to cause porosity through analysis of in-process layer-by-layer optical images of the build invoking multifractal and spectral graph theoretic features. These objectives are important because porosity has a significant impact on the functional integrity of LPBF parts, such as fatigue life. Furthermore, linking process conditions to defects via sensor signatures is the first step toward in-process quality assurance in LPBF. To achieve the first objective, titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) test cylinders of 10 mm diameter × 25 mm height were built under differing H, V, and P settings on a commercial LPBF machine (EOS M280). The effect of these process parameters on count, size, and location of pores was quantified based on X-ray computed tomography (XCT) images. To achieve the second objective, layerwise optical images of the powder bed were acquired as the parts were being built. Spectral graph theoretic and multifractal features were extracted from the layer-by-layer images for each test part. Subsequently, these features were linked to the process parameters using machine learning approaches. Through these image-based features, process conditions under which the parts were built were identified with the statistical fidelity over 80% (F-score).

Topics: Lasers , Porosity , Imaging
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101010-101010-14. doi:10.1115/1.4040616.

The surfaces with textures have been widely used as functional surfaces, and the textures are usually generated on flat or cylindrical surfaces. Textured freeform surfaces will have more potential applications. The authors have proposed the double-frequency elliptical vibration cutting (DFEVC) method to machine freeform surfaces on steel materials. Based on this method, a new diamond turning method is developed, in which the variable-frequency modulations are utilized to control the tool marks left on the machined surface to generate the micro/nano dimple textures with high uniformity on the freeform surface. Different from the conventional surface topography model based on the ideal tool cutting edge with zero cutting edge radius, a new modeling approach based on the tool surface profiles is proposed, in which the rake face, the flank face, and the cutting edge surface with actual non-zero cutting edge radius instead of the ideal cutting edge are included for the tool model, the tool surfaces during the machining process are analytically described as a function of the tool geometry and the machining parameters, and the influences of the tool surface profiles on the topography generation of the machined surface are considered. A typical freeform surface is textured on die steel, and the measured results verify the feasibility of the proposed turning method. Compared with the topography prediction results based on the ideal cutting edge, the results considering the tool surfaces show improved simulation accuracy, and are consistent with the experimental results, which validates the proposed topography prediction approach.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101011-101011-9. doi:10.1115/1.4040725.

This paper presents a model of surface grinding with superimposed oscillation of the workpiece. The parameters of the model were experimentally derived and the equations of motions of the system were solved using Matlab. The results obtained showed a significant decrease in the amplitude of the relative vibration between the wheel and workpiece when the oscillation was superimposed onto the feed motion of the workpiece. A range of experimental work was undertaken and the results showed that the vibratory process had a superior performance in absolute terms with reference to conventional grinding. Low forces along with longer tool life were recorded with the added vibration. A notion of dynamic relief was introduced to express the efficiency of the vibratory process.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101012-101012-12. doi:10.1115/1.4040727.

The wrinkling research in sheet metal forming process has always been one of the most common hot topics. There are many methods to predict the sheet metal wrinkling while it is still difficult to accurately predict the initiation of wrinkling. The variational study of the potential function can be used to analyze the sheet metal wrinkling and acquire the stable energy criterion. In this paper, the sheet metal wrinkling mechanisms are explained in detail, and a wrinkling prediction model is proposed based on derivation and the potential function analysis during sheet metal forming processes. Meanwhile, the finite element (FE) simulation and experimental results of Yoshida buckling test (YBT) are used to verify the accuracy of the theoretical wrinkling prediction model. And the wrinkling prediction model has also applied to analyze the conventional spinning forming process, and the critical moment of flange wrinkling had been accurately predicted.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101013-101013-14. doi:10.1115/1.4040726.

Turn-milling machines are widely used in industry because of their multifunctional capabilities in producing complex parts in one setup. Both milling cutter and workpiece rotate simultaneously while the machine travels in three Cartesian directions leading to five axis kinematics with complex chip generation mechanism. This paper presents a general mathematical model to predict the chip thickness, cutting force, and chatter stability of turn milling operations. The dynamic chip thickness is modeled by considering the rigid body motion, relative vibrations between the tool and workpiece, and cutter-workpiece engagement geometry. The dynamics of the process are governed by delayed differential equations by time periodic coefficients with a time varying delay contributed by two simultaneously rotating spindles and kinematics of the machine. The stability of the system has been solved in semidiscrete time domain as a function of depth of cut, feed, tool spindle speed, and workpiece speed. The stability model has been experimentally verified in turn milling of Aluminum alloy cut with a helical cylindrical end mill.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101014-101014-8. doi:10.1115/1.4040730.

A novel additive manufacturing algorithm was developed to increase the consistency of three-dimensional (3D) printed curvilinear or conformal patterns on freeform surfaces. The algorithm dynamically and locally compensates the nozzle location with respect to the pattern geometry, motion direction, and topology of the substrate to minimize lagging or leading during conformal printing. The printing algorithm was implemented in an existing 3D printing system that consists of an extrusion-based dispensing module and an XYZ-stage. A dispensing head is fixed on a Z-axis and moves vertically, while the substrate is installed on an XY-stage and moves in the x–y plane. The printing algorithm approximates the printed pattern using nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) curves translated directly from a 3D model. Results showed that the proposed printing algorithm increases the consistency in the width of the printed patterns. It is envisioned that the proposed algorithm can facilitate nonplanar 3D printing using common and commercially available Cartesian-type 3D printing systems.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101015-101015-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040729.

Friction self-piercing riveting (F-SPR) process has shown advantages over fusion welding, solid state welding, and traditional mechanical joining processes in joining dissimilar materials. Because of the thermo-mechanical nature of F-SPR process, formation of the joint is determined by both riveting force and softening degree of materials to be joined. However, it is still not clear that how exactly the riveting force and generated frictional heat jointly influence mechanical interlocking formation and crack inhibition during F-SPR process. To address these issues, F-SPR process was applied to join 2.2 mm-thick aluminum alloy AA6061-T6 to 2.0 mm-thick magnesium alloy AZ31B. The correlation of riveting force, torque responses, and energy input with joint quality was investigated systematically under a wide range of process parameter combinations. It was found that a relatively greater final peak force and higher energy input were favorable to produce sound joints. Based on that, a two-stage F-SPR method was proposed to better control the energy input and riveting force for improved joint quality. The joints produced by the two-stage method exhibited significantly improved lap-shear strength, i.e., 70% higher than traditional self-piercing riveting (SPR) joints and 30% higher than previous one-stage F-SPR joints. This research provides a valuable reference for further understanding the F-SPR joint formation mechanism and conducting process optimization.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):101016-101016-7. doi:10.1115/1.4040778.

In this paper, an inverse method is presented to evaluate the inner workpiece temperature distribution during cryogenic turning of metastable austenitic steel AISI 347 utilizing a FE representation of the process. Temperature data during the experiments are provided by thermocouples and a commercial thermography system. A constant cutting speed at two varying feeds is investigated. Inverse parameter verification by aligning simulated and experimental data in a least squares sense is achieved. A heat flux from tool to workpiece as well as heat transfer coefficients for forced convection by air and by carbon dioxide as cryogenic coolant are identified for each set of cutting parameters. Rigid body rotation in the model is considered applying convective time derivatives of the temperature field. Unphysical oscillations occurring in regions of high Péclet numbers are suppressed utilizing a streamline-upwind/Petrov–Galerkin scheme.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Design Innovation Paper

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):105001-105001-14. doi:10.1115/1.4040428.

This paper presents a study combining additive manufactured (AM) elements with carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) for the autoclave curing of complex-shaped, lightweight structures. Two approaches were developed: First, structural cores were produced with AM, over-laminated with CFRP, and co-cured in the autoclave. Second, a functional hull is produced with AM, filled with a temperature- and pressure-resistant material, and over-laminated with CFRP. After curing, the filler-material is removed to obtain a hollow lightweight structure. The approaches were applied to hat stiffeners, which were modeled, fabricated, and tested in three-point bending. Results show weight savings by up to 5% compared to a foam core reference. Moreover, the AM element contributes to the mechanical performance of the hat stiffener, which is highlighted by an increase in the specific bending stiffness and the first failure load by up to 18% and 310%. Results indicate that the approaches are appropriate for composite structures with complex geometries.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(10):105002-105002-16. doi:10.1115/1.4040622.

Additive manufacturing (AM) is now capable of fabricating geometrically complex geometries such as a variable-density lattice structure. This ability to handle geometric complexity provides the designer an opportunity to rethink the design method. In this work, a novel topology optimization algorithm is proposed to design variable-density lattice infill to maximize the first eigenfrequency of the structure. To make the method efficient, the lattice infill is treated as a continuum material with equivalent elastic properties obtained from asymptotic homogenization (AH), and the topology optimization is employed to find the optimum density distribution of the lattice structure. Specifically, the AH method is employed to calculate the effective mechanical properties of a predefined lattice structure as a function of its relative densities. Once the optimal density distribution is obtained, a continuous mapping technique is used to convert the optimal density distribution into variable-density lattice structured design. Two three-dimensional (3D) examples are used to validate the proposed method, where the designs are printed by the EOS direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process in Ti6Al4V. Experimental results obtained from dynamical testing of the printed samples and detailed simulation results are in good agreement with the homogenized model results, which demonstrates the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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