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Research Papers

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081001-081001-8. doi:10.1115/1.4039652.

Parts made via polymer extrusion are currently limited to a constant cross section. Additionally, the process is difficult to control, so desired final part dimensions are often achieved via a manual trial-and-error approach to parameter adjustment. This work seeks to increase the capability of polymer extrusion by using iterative learning control (ILC) to regulate the final width of a rectangular part through changing the width of a simple variable-geometry die. Simulation results determine the appropriateness of the learning algorithm and gains to be used in experiment. A prototype die on a production extruder was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. These experiments achieved automated control over both gross change in shape and final part dimension when the puller speed was held constant, which has not been seen previously in the literature.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081002-081002-12. doi:10.1115/1.4039856.

In this paper, a novel fixture mechanism with combining a mobility of the legged robot and advantages of parallel mechanism is designed to hold the different size and shape, large-scale workpiece. The proposed mobile fixture mechanism holds the workpiece as a parallel manipulator while it walks as a legged robot. This kind of robotized fixtures can possess high self-configurable ability to accommodate a wider variety of products. In order to obtain the best kinematic dexterity and accuracy characteristics, comprehensive performance optimization is performed by non-dominated-genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). In the optimization procedure, a conventional kinematic transformation matrix (Jacobian matrix) and error propagation matrix are obtained through derivation and differential motion operations. The singular values and condition number based on velocity Jacobians and error amplification factors based on error propagation matrix are derived; in addition, relative pose error range of end effector is also derived. On the basis of the above measure indices, three kinds of nonlinear optimization problems are defined to obtain the optimal architecture parameters for better kinematic accuracy and dexterity in workspace. Comparison analyses of the optimized results are performed.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081003-081003-8. doi:10.1115/1.4039979.

Carbon fiber reinforced composites have received growing attention because of their superior performance and high potential for lightweight systems. An economic method to manufacture the parts made of these composites is a sequence of forming followed by a compression molding. The first step in this sequence is called preforming that forms the prepreg, which is the fabric impregnated with the uncured resin, to the product geometry, while the molding process cures the resin. Slip between different prepreg layers is observed in the preforming step, and it is believed to have a non-negligible impact on the resulting geometry. This paper reports a method to characterize the interaction between different prepreg layers, which should be valuable for future predictive modeling and design optimization. An experimental device was built to evaluate the interactions with respect to various industrial production conditions. The experimental results were analyzed for an in-depth understanding about how temperature, relative sliding speed, and fiber orientation affect the tangential interaction between two prepreg layers. Moreover, a hydro-lubricant model was introduced to study the relative motion mechanism of this fabric-resin-fabric system, and the results agreed well with the experiment data. The interaction factors obtained from this research will be implemented in a preforming process finite element simulation model.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081004-081004-12. doi:10.1115/1.4040157.

This paper described the effects of prestraining and annealing on plastic anisotropy (r-value) of aluminum alloy 5182-O sheets including two prestrain paths and two annealing conditions. During the prestraining and annealing processes, r-value changed depending on prestrain paths and annealing conditions. Although there were slight changes of the normal anisotropy coefficient, r¯, during prestraining and annealing processes, the planar anisotropy coefficient, Δr, increased significantly, especially for the uniaxial prestrain condition. This could accelerate the development of earing during a sheet forming operation. Also, the corresponding sheet textures in rolling direction (RD)/TD plane after prestraining and annealing processes were observed through electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis to explain the r-value changes, where the viscoplastic self-consistent (VPSC) model was used to correlate the determined texture to measured r-values. It is found that the sheet texture also had significant changes relating to the prestrain paths and annealing conditions resulting in varied r-values.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081005-081005-12. doi:10.1115/1.4039587.

For centuries, metals and materials have been characterized using a traditional method called a uniaxial tension test. The data acquired from this test found to be adequate for operations of simple forming where one axis stretching is dominant. Currently, due to the demand of lightweight component production, multiple individual parts eliminated by stamping a single complex shape, which also further reduces many secondary operations. This change is driving by the new fuel-efficiency requirement by corporate average fuel economy of 55.8 miles per gallon by 2025.1 Due to complex part geometry, this forming method induces multiaxial stress states, which are difficult to predict using conventional tools. Thus, to analyze these multiaxial stress states limiting dome height tests and bulge tests were recommended in many research publications. However, these tests limit the possibilities of applying multiaxial loading and rather a sample geometry changes are required to imply multiaxial stresses. Even this capability is not an option in bulge test due to leakage issue. Thus, a test machine called a biaxial test was devised that would provide the capability to test the specimen in multiaxial stress states by varying the independent load or displacement on two independent axis. In this paper, two processes, limiting dome tests and biaxial tests were experimented, modeled, and compared. For the biaxial tests, a cruciform test specimen was utilized, and conventional forming limit specimens were used for the dome tests. Variation of sample geometry in limiting dome test and variation of loading in biaxial test were utilized to imply multiaxial stress states in order to capture the limit strain from uniaxial to equibiaxial strain mode. In addition, the strain path, forming, and formability investigated and the differences between the tests provided. From the results, it was noted that higher limit strains were acquired in dome tests than in biaxial tests due to contact pressure from the rigid punch. The literature shows that the contact pressure (which occurs when the rigid tool contacts the deformed body), increases the deformation and thus increases the limit strains to failure. This contact pressure parameter is unavailable in biaxial test, and thus, a pure material behavior can be obtained. However, limit strains from biaxial test cannot be considered for a process where rigid tool is processing the metal, and thus, calibration is necessary.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081006-081006-13. doi:10.1115/1.4039112.

When producing racks by cold rotary forging, the top punch and the rack teeth definitely intervene and thus the top punch has to be amended, which makes the technical designing processes difficult and complex (Han et al., 2016, “Cold Orbital Forging of Gear Rack,” Int. J. Mech. Sci., 117(10), pp. 227–242). In this study, a novel cold rotary forging method of producing racks is put forward to avoid the interventions between the top punch and the racks. Thus, the top punch need not be amended and the technical designing processes correspondingly become simple. In light of this presented method, a novel idea for cold rotary forging of producing multiple racks using one set of punch is motivated. The concrete researches are as follows: First, the mathematical models are developed and three kinds of key forging conditions in cold rotary forging of racks are calculated to avoid the interventions between the top punch and the racks. The first one is the condition that the top punch and the rack teeth do not intervene. The second one is the condition that the top punch and cylindrical surfaces of racks do not intervene. The third one is the condition that the top punch can be successfully constructed. On the basis of these three kinds of key forging conditions, the workpiece is optimized and the cold rotary forging processes of racks with constant and variable transmission ratio are examined using finite element (FE) simulations. The experimental researches are also conducted. The results show that for both racks with constant and variable transmission ratio, the obtained key forging conditions are effective and the presented cold rotary forging principles of producing multiple racks using one set of punch are feasible.

Topics: Forging
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081007-081007-12. doi:10.1115/1.4040262.

Solid-state hot press bonding is an advanced joining process wherein two specimens can be joined under high pressure for a period of time at an elevated temperature. The main step in hot press bonding is the void closure process. In the present study, a three-dimensional theoretical model for describing the void closure process is developed. In the model, the void closure process is divided into two stages: in the first stage, surface asperities are flattened by the time-independent local plastic flow mechanism, and isolated voids form at the bonding interface; in the second stage, the void closure is accomplished by three time-dependent mechanisms, namely, the viscoplastic flow mechanism, surface source diffusion mechanism, and interface source diffusion mechanism. The initial and ending conditions of these mechanisms are proposed. The model also includes an analysis of the effect of macroscopic deformation on void closure. Hot press bonding experiments of Ti–6Al–4V alloy are conducted to validate the model. The modeling predictions show good agreement with the experimental results.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081008-081008-16. doi:10.1115/1.4040155.

Five-axis machine with rotary-tilting spindle head (RTSH) is always used for sculptured surface machining, and the tool-tip dynamics in various machining postures along the tool path directly affect the machining accuracy and stability. To rapidly evaluate the tool-tip dynamics at different postures during the structural design of tool-spindle-spindle head (TSSH) assembly, this paper proposes a coupled dynamic model of tool-spindle-bearing system (TSBS) and RTSH. The model is a rigid-flexible multibody dynamic model with 36 degrees-of-freedom (DOFs), where in the rotary shaft, swivel shaft and housing are treated as rigid bodies; the tool, tool holder, and spindle shaft are modeled by reduced beams; the bearings and flexible joints are modeled as spring-damping elements. The fully Cartesian coordinates and Lagrangian method are employed to deduce a general parametric dynamic equation. The analytical method for calculating the contact stiffness of bearings and flexible joints is systematically presented, including tool-holder joint, holder-spindle joint, spindle bearings, hirth coupling, and the bearings and locking joints of rotary and swivel shafts. The model is verified by the frequency response functions (FRFs) testing and modal testing at different postures. The experimental results show that the proposed model can be used for accurate and efficient evaluation of the tool-tip FRFs, natural frequencies and mode shapes of TSSH at an arbitrary posture.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081009-081009-16. doi:10.1115/1.4040263.

During the micromachining processes of particle-reinforced metal matrix composites (PMMCs), matrix-particle interface failure plays an important role in the cutting mechanism. This paper presents a novel analytical model to predict the cutting forces in micromilling of this material considering particle debonding caused by interface failure. The particle debonding is observed not only in the processed surface but also in the chip. A new algorithm is proposed to estimate the particles debonding force caused by interface failure with the aid of Nardin–Schultz model. Then, several aspects of the cutting force generation mechanism are considered in this paper, including particles debonding force in the shear zone and build-up region, particles cracking force in the build-up region, shearing and ploughing forces of metal matrix, and varying sliding friction coefficients due to the reinforced particles in the chip-tool interface. The micro-slot milling experiments are carried out on a self-made three-axis high-precision machine tool, and the comparison between the predicted cutting forces and measured values shows that the proposed model can provide accurate prediction. Finally, the effects of interface failure, reinforced particles, and tool edge radius on cutting forces are investigated by the proposed model and some conclusions are given as follows: the particles debonding force caused by interface failure is significant and takes averagely about 23% of the cutting forces under the given cutting conditions; reinforced particles and edge radius can greatly affect the micromilling process of PMMCs.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081010-081010-12. doi:10.1115/1.4040267.

This paper describes a robust tool wear monitoring scheme for turning processes using low-cost sensors. A feature normalization scheme is proposed to eliminate the dependence of signal features on cutting conditions, cutting tools, and workpiece materials. In addition, a systematic feature selection procedure in conjunction with automated signal preprocessing parameter selection is presented to select the feature set that maximizes the performance of the predictive tool wear model. The tool wear model is built using a type-2 fuzzy basis function network (FBFN), which is capable of estimating the uncertainty bounds associated with tool wear measurement. Experimental results show that the tool wear model built with the selected features exhibits high accuracy, generalized applicability, and exemplary robustness: The model trained using 4140 steel turning test data could predict the tool wear for Inconel 718 turning with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 7.80 μm and requests tool changes with a 6% margin on average. Furthermore, the developed method was successfully applied to tool wear monitoring of Ti–6Al–4V alloy despite different mechanisms of tool wear, i.e., crater wear instead of flank wear.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081011-081011-10. doi:10.1115/1.4040266.

Due to its high versatility and scalability, manual grinding is an important and widely used technology in production for rework, repair, deburring, and finishing of large or unique parts. To make the process more interactive and reliable, manual grinding needs to incorporate “skill-based design,” which models a person-based system and can go significantly beyond the considerations of traditional human factors and ergonomics to encompass both processing parameters (e.g., feed rate, tool path, applied forces, material removal rate (MRR)), and machined surface quality (e.g., surface roughness). This study quantitatively analyzes the characteristics of complex techniques involved in manual operations. A series of experiments have been conducted using subjects of different levels of skill, while analyzing their visual gaze, cutting force, tool path, and workpiece quality. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multivariate regression analysis were performed and showed that the unique behavior of the operator affects the process performance measures of specific energy consumption and MRR. In the future, these findings can be used to predict product quality and instruct new practitioners.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081012-081012-16. doi:10.1115/1.4040087.

The cutting force is one of the key factors for planning and optimizing the machining operation in material removal processes. An analytical cutting force prediction model that takes into consideration both edge effects and size effects based on the oblique cutting theory is developed and analyzed in this study. A detailed analysis of the cutting geometry is presented based on the coordinate system transformation and uncut chip thickness (UCT), which is evaluated on the rake plane instead of the reference plane. Then, the developed Johnson–Cook constitutive model of the workpiece that takes into consideration the size effects is then applied to the prediction of edge forces coefficients and cutting forces coefficients. The edge forces are predicted using the edge coefficients prediction model with the regularity found in the orthogonal simulations, which reflect the influences of chamfered length and chamfered angle. The developed model is validated using the turning operations of super alloys with round chamfered inserts. Finally, the effects of the cutter edge, cutting parameters, and UCT on the cutting forces are investigated using the developed model. The reasonableness and effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated through the comparison of the measured and predicted cutting forces for various chamfer characteristics.

Topics: Cutting
Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081013-081013-15. doi:10.1115/1.4040320.

This research aims at unleashing the potential of additive manufacturing technology in industrial design that can produce structures/devices with irregular component geometries to reduce sizes/weights. We explore, by means of path-finding, the length minimization of freeform hydraulic piping network in compact space under given constraints. Previous studies on path-finding have mainly focused on enhancing computational efficiency due to the need to produce rapid results in such as navigation and video-game applications. In this research, we develop a new Focal Any-Angle A* approach that combines the merits of grid-based method and visibility graph-based method. Specifically, we formulate pruned visibility graphs preserving only the useful portion of the vertices and then find the optimal path based on the candidate vertices using A*. The reduced visibility graphs enable us to outperform approximations and maintain the optimality of exact algorithms in a more efficient manner. The algorithm proposed is compared to the traditional A* on Grids, Theta* and A* on visibility graphs in terms of path length, number of nodes evaluated, as well as computational time. As demonstrated and validated through case studies, the proposed method is capable of finding the shortest path with tractable computational cost, which provides a viable design tool for the additive manufacturing of piping network systems.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081014-081014-11. doi:10.1115/1.4040324.

This paper presents investigation findings on additive manufacturing (AM) aspects of Ti6Al4V by microplasma transferred arc powder deposition (μ-PTAPD) process in continuous and dwell-time mode. Pilot experiments were conducted to identify feasible values of six important parameters of μ-PTAPD process for single-layer deposition followed by 27 main experiments varying three parameters. Energy consumption aspects were used to identify optimum values of parameters varied during main experiments for multilayer deposition. It revealed that higher values of flow rate of powder and travel speed of deposition head result in smaller values of power consumption per unit flow rate of powder and energy consumption per unit traverse length. Continuous and dwell-time modes were used to study deposition characteristics, microstructure, lamellae widths, wear characteristics, tensile properties, fractography of tensile specimen, wear mechanism, and microhardness of multilayer depositions. Dwell-time deposition yielded higher effective wall width (EWW), deposition efficiency (DE), yield strength, ultimate strength, microhardness, surface straightness, lower strain, wear volume and friction coefficient, and smaller lamellar width. It had good deposition quality with fine partial martensite and basket-weave microstructure. Fractography analysis exhibited fine dimple rupture for dwell-time multilayer deposition and occurrence of elongated regions for continuous multilayer deposition. Wear of dwell-time multilayer deposition occurred by microploughing and microcutting resulting in smaller wear debris. Comparison of Ti6Al4V depositions by different processes revealed that dwell-time μ-PTAPD process is cost-effective than laser-based processes and energy efficient than pulsed plasma arc process.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):081015-081015-9. doi:10.1115/1.4040161.

A new method for online chatter detection and suppression in robotic milling is presented. To compute the chatter stability of robotic milling along a curvilinear tool path characterized by significant variation in robot arm configuration and cutting conditions, the tool path is partitioned into small sections such that the dynamic stability characteristics of the robot can be assumed to be constant within each section. A methodology to determine the appropriate section length is proposed. The instantaneous cutting force-induced dynamic strain signal is measured using a wireless piezoelectric thin-film polymer (polyvinyldene fluoride (PVDF))-based sensor system, and a discrete wavelet transform (DWT)-based online chatter detection algorithm and chatter suppression strategy are developed and experimentally evaluated. The proposed chatter detection algorithm is shown to be capable of recognizing the onset of chatter while the chatter suppression strategy is found to be effective in minimizing chatter during robotic milling.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

Technical Brief

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):084501-084501-6. doi:10.1115/1.4039766.

Recent advances in fused filament fabrication (FFF), such as five-axis printing, patching existing parts, and certain hybrid manufacturing processes, involve printing atop a previously manufactured polymer substrate. The success of these technologies depends upon the bond strength between the substrate and the newly added geometry. ANOVA and response surface methods were used to determine the effect of three process parameters on bond tensile strength: surface roughness, layer thickness, and raster angle. Experimental results indicate that the process–property relationships are not identical to those found in single, continuous FFF operations, and that the physical bonding mechanisms may also be different. Bond strength was found to be highly sensitive to surface roughness and layer thickness, and distinct optimal parameter settings exist. These results represent a first step toward understanding bond strength in such circumstances, allowing manufacturers to intelligently select process parameters for the production of both the substrate and the secondary geometry.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):084502-084502-7. doi:10.1115/1.4039917.

The evolution of the manufacturing industry has favored the use of new technologies that increase the level of autonomy in production systems. The work presented shows a methodology that allows for online estimation of cutting parameters based on the analysis of the cutting force signal pattern. The dynamic response of the tool is taken into account through a function that relates the response time to the input variables in the process. The force signal is obtained with a dynamometric platform based on piezoelectric sensors. The final section of the paper shows the experimental validation where machining tests with variable machining conditions were carried out. The results reveal high precision in the estimation of depths of cut in end milling.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 2018;140(8):084503-084503-6. doi:10.1115/1.4040026.

Zinc (Zn) is an important material for numerous applications since it has pre-eminent ductility and high ultimate tensile strain, as well high corrosion resistivity and good biocompatibility. However, since Zn suffers from low mechanical strengths, most of the applications would use Zn as a coating or alloying element. In this study, a new class of Zn-based material with a significantly enhanced mechanical property is developed. The zinc-10 vol % tungsten carbide (Zn-10WC) nanocomposite was fabricated by cold compaction followed by a melting process. The Zn-10WC nanocomposites offer a uniform nanoparticle dispersion with little agglomeration, exhibiting significantly enhanced mechanical properties by micropillar compression tests and microwire tensile testing. The nanocomposites offer an over 200% and 180% increase in yield strength and ultimate tensile strength (UTS), respectively. The strengthening effect could be attributed to Orowan strengthening and grain refinement induced by nanoparticles.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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