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Research Papers

Effect of Multiple Pulse Resistance Spot Welding Schedules on Liquid Metal Embrittlement Severity

[+] Author and Article Information
E. Wintjes

Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering,
University of Waterloo,
200 University Ave. W.,
Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada
e-mail: elwintje@uwaterloo.ca

C. DiGiovanni

Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering,
University of Waterloo,
200 University Ave. W.,
Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada
e-mails: Christopher.Digiovanni@uwaterloo.ca; ctdigiov@uwaterloo.ca

L. He

Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering,
University of Waterloo,
200 University Ave. W.,
Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada
e-mail: l39he@edu.uwaterloo.ca

S. Bag

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati,
Surjyamukhi Road, North, Amingaon,
Guwahati 781039, Assam, India
e-mail: swarupbag@iitg.ac.in

F. Goodwin

International Zinc Association,
2530 Meridian Pkwy #115,
Durham, NC 27713
e-mail: fgoodwin@zinc.org

E. Biro

Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering,
University of Waterloo,
200 University Ave. W.,
Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada
e-mail: elliot.biro@uwaterloo.ca

Y. Zhou

Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering,
University of Waterloo,
200 University Ave. W.,
Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada
e-mail: nzhou@uwaterloo.ca

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 16, 2019; final manuscript received June 18, 2019; published online July 31, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(10), (Jul 31, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-19-1221; doi: 10.1115/1.4044099 History: Received April 16, 2019; Accepted June 18, 2019

Zinc-coated advanced high strength steels (AHSS) used in automotive applications are susceptible to liquid metal embrittlement (LME) during resistance spot welding (RSW). This study examines the impact of multiple pulse welding schedules on LME severity in welds of TRIP1100. Two different types of pulsing methodologies have been proposed to reduce LME severity: applying a pre-pulse before the welding current to remove the zinc coating and pulsing during the welding current to manage heat generation. However, the mechanisms by which these methods affect LME severity have not been fully explored. This work showed that a welding schedule consisting of two equal length pulses resulted in the least severe LME because it reduced the amount of free zinc available for LME without creating too much tensile stress. The majority of pre-pulse welding schedules caused an increase in LME cracking due to the additional heat introduced into the weld. However, a 4 kA (low current) pre-pulse applied for 3 cy (low time) reduced LME cracking by almost 30%. The pre-pulse allowed zinc to diffuse into the coating and stabilize the zinc, without introducing too much additional heat into the weld. These results indicate that multiple pulse welding schedules may be successfully used to reduce LME cracking, although the mechanisms by which they impact LME are more complicated than previously thought.

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Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Topics: Welding , Welded joints , Heat
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Three sheet dissimilar weld geometry

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Fig. 2

(a) Selection of cross-section plane using visible surface cracks and (b) measurement of LME cracks

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Fig. 3

(a) EDS line scan of zinc coating remaining on TRIP1100 after a 12 cy pulse. Iron is shown in red, zinc is in green, and aluminum is in blue. (b) Measurement of peak height, (c) determination of peak half heights, and (d) measurement of zinc coating thickness. (Color version online.)

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Fig. 4

Method for determining the amount of iron in the remaining zinc coating for a sample of TRIP1100 welded with a 12 cy pulse

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Fig. 5

Thermal model setup; locations of heat generation and cooling

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Fig. 6

Comparison between experimental and thermal model nugget size

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Fig. 7

Spot welds made using welding times of (a) 10-2-14 cy, (b) 12-2-12 cy, and (c) 14-2-10 cy with LME cracks circled

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Fig. 8

Comparison of the crack index for TRIP1100 welded with different pulsed welding schedules

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Fig. 9

Average thickness and composition of zinc coating remaining after first pulse

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Fig. 10

(a) Temperature and (b) maximum principle stress in the weld shoulder of TRIP1100 welded with different pulsing conditions (Color version online.)

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Fig. 11

Temperature distribution in TRIP1100 weld (a) before and (b) after mechanical collapse

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Fig. 12

Spot welds made using (a) no pre-pulse and (b) 17 kA, 6 cy, (c) 17 kA, 1 cy, and (d) 4 kA, 3 cy pre-pulses with LME cracks circled

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Fig. 13

Comparison of the crack index for TRIP1100 welded with (a) 11–17 kA, 6 cy, (b) 17 kA, 1 cy, and (c) 4 kA, 3-12 cy pre-pulses

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Fig. 14

Average thickness and composition of zinc coating remain after 4 kA pre-pulses of different lengths

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