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Research Papers

A Coupled Thermomechanical Modeling Method for Predicting Grinding Residual Stress Based on Randomly Distributed Abrasive Grains

[+] Author and Article Information
Zhenguo Nie

State Key Laboratory of Tribology,
Institute of Manufacturing Engineering,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China;
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Carnegie Mellon University,
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
e-mails: zhenguon@andrew.cmu.edu; zhenguonie@gmail.com

Gang Wang

State Key Laboratory of Tribology,
Institute of Manufacturing Engineering,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: gwang@tsinghua.edu.cn

Liping Wang

State Key Laboratory of Tribology,
Institute of Manufacturing Engineering,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: lpwang@tsinghua.edu.cn

Yiming (Kevin) Rong

Department of Mechanical and Energy Engineering,
Southern University of Science and Technology,
Shenzhen 518055, China
e-mail: rongym@sustc.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 2, 2019; final manuscript received May 14, 2019; published online June 10, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Radu Pavel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(8), 081005 (Jun 10, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-19-1006; doi: 10.1115/1.4043799 History: Received January 02, 2019; Accepted May 16, 2019

In this research, we propose a coupled thermomechanical modeling method for predicting grinding residual stress based on randomly distributed grains. In order to deal with the problem that the nominal grinding force is too small to generate the plastic deformation, we hold the opinion that grinding residual stress is totally derived from three factors: thermal stress, the nominal grinding force (pressure) over the entire grinding zone, and the equivalent plowing force just under the bottom of the abrasive wheel. Finite element model (FEM) simulation of the single-grain grinding (SGG) is conducted to obtain the critical plowing depth and the SGG force at an arbitrary cutting depth. Based on the randomly distributed abrasive grains, the equivalent grinding heat source model, the equivalent SGG plowing force model, and the equivalent nominal pressure model are all established. A 2D coupled thermomechanical model is established to simulate the grinding process for temperature fields and grinding residual stress fields. In addition, verification tests are conducted to validate the model. It turns out that the coupled model can accurately predict the multiphysical fields on both temperature and residual stress. Based on the simulation results of the model, the generation mechanism of grinding residual stress is quantitatively studied. This research provides a promising pathway to residual stress control of grinding.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Measured residual stress variations after wet grinding

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Fig. 2

Generation mechanism of grinding residual stress: the thermal stress, the nominal equivalent pressure, and the plowing effect force

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Fig. 3

The framework of the coupled thermomechanical modeling method of the grinding process

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Fig. 4

The equivalent heat source and pseudorandom grains in the micro–macro scale grinding

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Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the grain distribution of Chen and Rowe's model

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Fig. 6

Microtopography of the alumina abrasive wheel (specification: WA400 × 30 × 27A80L5V35)

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Fig. 7

The schematic diagram of the single-grain grinding [31]

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Fig. 8

The cutting depth of a single grain [31]

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Fig. 9

Three phases of material removal by equivalent abrasive grains [38]

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Fig. 10

Generation mechanism of the residual stress for a single grain. Three components of single-grain grinding force: rubbing force, plowing force, and cutting force.

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Fig. 12

Simulation results of the SGG process. (a) The plowing stage without any material removal and (b) the cutting stage with chip formation.

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Fig. 13

Grinding force varies during the SGG process at the critical plowing depth δp = 2.5 μm. The mean normal component Fn is 0.54 N, and the mean tangential component Ft is 0.24 N.

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Fig. 14

SGG force is proportional to the cutting depth

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Fig. 15

Grinding force measurement

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Fig. 16

Measured grinding force per unit width

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Fig. 17

Verification grinding tests with the infrared temperature measurement system

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Fig. 18

Residual stress measurement by X-ray diffraction (Rigaku Smart-Site R5)

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Fig. 19

Computed temperature fields during a wet grinding process (unit: °C)

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Fig. 20

Validation of the maximum temperatures between simulation and experimental results

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Fig. 21

Computed residual stress fields after grinding by simulation (unit: Pa)

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Fig. 22

Validation of residual stress distribution with depth beneath the ground surface: (a) tangential residual stress and (b) transverse residual stress. Wet grinding with vs = 20 m/s, vw = 300 mm/min, and ap = 100 µm.

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Fig. 23

Comparison of the maximum residual stress between simulation and experimental results. Wet grinding with vs = 20 m/s and vw = 300 mm/min.

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Fig. 24

Determination of the fragmentation coefficient by the method of trial and error

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Fig. 25

Maximum tangential residual stress versus maximum grinding temperature on the ground surface

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