Research Papers

Dry Generating Gear Grinding: Hierarchical Two-Step Finite Element Model for Process Optimization

[+] Author and Article Information
Giacomo Guerrini

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale,
Università di Bologna,
viale Risorgimento, 2,
Bologna 40136, Italy
e-mail: guerrini.giacomo@gmail.com

Adrian H. A. Lutey

Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Architettura,
Università degli Studi di Parma,
Parco Area delle Scienze, 181/A,
Parma 43124, Italy
e-mail: adrian.lutey@unipr.it

Shreyes N. Melkote

George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
801 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30318
e-mail: shreyes.melkote@me.gatech.edu

Alessandro Ascari

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale,
Università di Bologna,
viale Risorgimento, 2,
Bologna 40136, Italy
e-mail: a.ascari@unibo.it

Alessandro Fortunato

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale,
Università di Bologna,
viale Risorgimento, 2,
Bologna 40136, Italy
e-mail: alessandro.fortunato@unibo.it

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received October 15, 2018; final manuscript received March 22, 2019; published online April 12, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Radu Pavel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(6), 061005 (Apr 12, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1726; doi: 10.1115/1.4043309 History: Received October 15, 2018; Accepted March 25, 2019

Recent developments in the automotive industry have led to more stringent requirements for transmission gear quality. This aspect, combined with a massive increase in the number of gears produced per year, has seen generating grinding become the finishing method of choice for mass production of gears. Due to the intrinsic nature of grinding, this process remains the only manufacturing phase that still requires the widespread use of lubricant. With the aim of improving the environmental sustainability of this process chain, recent attempts at performing dry grinding without lubricant have highlighted the critical aspect of thermal damage produced under these conditions. In the present work, a two-step finite element modeling approach is presented for predicting thermal damage during dry generating gear grinding. Grinding forces and thermal energy generated by the interaction of a single grain with the workpiece are first calculated based on real grain geometry acquired via computed tomography. Results of this single-grain model are then applied at a gear tooth level together with process kinematics to determine the temperature distribution during dry generating grinding. Single-grain and generating grinding tests are performed to verify the predicted onset of thermal damage and the ability to optimize process parameters using the proposed hierarchical modeling approach.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Topics: Grinding , Gears , Gear teeth
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Fig. 1

Flow diagram of hierarchical modeling approach and experimental verification

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Fig. 2

Single-grain model configuration with Al2O3 F16 abrasive grain (rigid body) and 27MnCr5 steel workpiece (deformable body)

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Fig. 3

(a) Kinematics of wheel–workpiece contact area during generating grinding and (b) simplified heat source motion within the thermal model

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Fig. 4

Schematic of single-grain grinding experimental setup

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Fig. 5

(a) Variation in single-grain grinding kinematics with feed, (b) acquired force signals, and (c) peak forces Fz and Fy for single-grain grinding experiments performed with vc = 30 m/s, f = 500 mm/min, and ae = 0.1 mm

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Fig. 6

Comparison of calculated and measured maximum forces for single-grain grinding experiments

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Fig. 7

CT scans of fused aluminum oxide F16 grain (a) before and (b) after single-grain grinding experiments and (c) overlaying of grain before and after experiments. (d) Resulting workpiece incision topography acquired with the optical profiler.

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Fig. 8

Simulated temperature distribution on left and right gear flanks after 2.88 s with a 30 μm depth of cut

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Fig. 9

Maximum simulated temperature as a function of grinding pass, temporal temperature profile for central grinding pass, and microscopic cross-sectional image of corresponding experimental specimen for (a) 10 μm, (b) 20 μm, (c) 30 μm, (d) 40 μm, and (e) 50 μm depth of cut



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