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Research Papers

A Gouge-Free Tool Axis Reorientation Method for Kinematics Compliant Avoidance of Singularity in 5-Axis Machining

[+] Author and Article Information
Shuoxue Sun

Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-Traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: shuoxue_sun@163.com

Yuwen Sun

Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-Traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education,
Dalian University of Technology,
Dalian 116024, China
e-mail: xiands@dlut.edu.cn

Yuan-Shin Lee

Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering,
North Carolina State University,
Raleigh, NC 27695
e-mail: yslee@ncsu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 30, 2018; final manuscript received March 18, 2019; published online April 2, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Guillaume Fromentin.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(5), 051010 (Apr 02, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1828; doi: 10.1115/1.4043266 History: Received November 30, 2018; Accepted March 19, 2019

When a cutter traverses a region local to the singularity in 5-axis machining, the stability of machine tool motion may be violated and inevitably lead to a reduction in machining quality and accuracy. In this paper, the underlying cause of the singular machine behaviors is first investigated by differentiating tool path motions, on the basis of the tool path motion expressions in part and machine coordinate systems. A further investigation indicates abrupt kinematic changes to be inevitable when the rotary axes approach a singularity. To eliminate such possible singular risks in 5-axis machining, a local tool path modification method is proposed by adjusting the two rotary axes out of a singular configuration. The critical kinematics smoothing and the consequent gouging concerns resulting from reorientation are comprehensively incorporated in the process of singularity avoidance, by means of a novel tool orientation optimization model. Specifically, the algorithm starts with the determination of an appropriate adjustment range in a simple yet effective manner, and then the primary rotary axis is adjusted in a constrained region away from zero, so as to avoid singularity. After that, the second rotary axis is accordingly adjusted, with no gouging requirements being violated. In this way, singularity problems in 5-axis machining are solved, and both the machine axes kinematics and surface gouging errors are under control. Machining simulation and laboratory experiments were conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Tool motions expressed, respectively, in the PCS and in the MCS

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Fig. 2

Tool orientation on a unit sphere

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Fig. 3

Procedures of the singularity avoidance method

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Fig. 4

An illustration of cutter-part contact condition under a determined tool orientation

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Fig. 5

Identification of the potential gouge-free region for the ith location

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Fig. 6

A-axis curves under different constraints: (a) original angle curve and adjusting region identified, (b) angle curve with kinematic constraint, and (c) optimized angle curve with constraints of kinematics, fixed ends and singularity avoidance

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Fig. 7

C-axis curve modification: (a) initial curve with constraints of kinematics and fixed ends, (b) gouging concerns for the initial deformation curve, and (c) optimized C-axis angle curve with constraints of kinematics, fixed ends, and gouge avoidance

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Fig. 8

The design surface and planned tool path

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Fig. 9

The AC angle curves and corresponding rotary velocity and acceleration of the original tool path

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Fig. 10

The AC angle curves and corresponding rotary velocity and acceleration of the singularity-free tool paths

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Fig. 11

Machining simulation: #1 surface machined by #1 path; #2 surface machined by #2 path; #3 surface machined by #3 path; and #4 surface machined by #4 path

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Fig. 12

Machining results: #1 surface machined by #1 path; #2 surface machined by #2 path; #3 surface machined by #3 path; and #4 surface machined by #4 path

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Fig. 13

Roughness profiles for the four machined surfaces: (a) #1 surface, (b) #2 surface, (c) #3 surface, and (d) #4 surface

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