0
Research Papers

Modeling and Prediction of Residual Stresses in Additive Layer Manufacturing by Microplasma Transferred Arc Process Using Finite Element Simulation

[+] Author and Article Information
Sagar H. Nikam

Discipline of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering,
School of Computing, Engineering and Intelligent Systems,
Ulster University,
Derry/Londonderry BT48 7JL,
Northern Ireland, UK
e-mail: s.nikam@ulster.ac.uk

N. K. Jain

Professor
Discipline of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Indore,
Simrol 453 552,
Madhya Pradesh, India
e-mail: nkjain@iiti.ac.in

Manuscript received May 28, 2018; final manuscript received March 19, 2019; published online April 12, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Qiang Huang.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(6), 061003 (Apr 12, 2019) (14 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1368; doi: 10.1115/1.4043264 History: Received May 28, 2018; Accepted March 19, 2019

Prediction of residual stresses induced by any additive layer manufacturing process greatly helps in preventing thermal cracking and distortion formed in the substrate and deposition material. This paper presents the development of a model for the prediction of residual stresses using three-dimensional finite element simulation (3D-FES) and their experimental validation in a single-track and double-track deposition of Ti-6Al-4V powder on AISI 4130 substrate by the microplasma transferred arc (µ-PTA) powder deposition process. It involved 3D-FES of the temperature distribution and thermal cycles that were validated experimentally using three K-type thermocouples mounted along the deposition direction. Temperature distribution, thermal cycles, and residual stresses are predicted in terms of the µ-PTA process parameters and temperature-dependent properties of substrate and deposition materials. Influence of a number of deposition tracks on the residual stresses is also studied. Results reveal that (i) tensile residual stress is higher at the bonding between the deposition and substrate and attains a minimum value at the midpoint of a deposition track; (ii) maximum tensile residual stress occurs in the substrate material at its interface with deposition track. This primarily causes distortion and thermal cracks; (iii) maximum compressive residual stress occurs approximately at mid-height of the substrate material; and (iv) deposition of a subsequent track relieves tensile residual stress induced by the previously deposited track.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Vilar, R., 1999, “Laser Cladding,” J. Laser Appl. 11(2), pp. 64–79. [CrossRef]
Baufeld, B., Brandl, E., and Van Der Biest, O., 2011, “Wire Based Additive Layer Manufacturing: Comparison of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Components Fabricated by Laser-Beam Deposition and Shaped Metal Deposition,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 211(6), pp. 1146–1158. [CrossRef]
Sawant M. S., and Jain, N. K., 2017, “Characteristics of Single-Track and Multi-Track Depositions of Stellite by Micro-Plasma Transferred Arc Powder Deposition Process,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 26(8), pp. 4029–4039. [CrossRef]
Jhavar, S., Jain, N. K., and Paul, C. P., 2014, “Development of Micro-Plasma Transferred arc (µ-PTA) Wire Deposition Process for Additive Layer Manufacturing Applications,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 214(5), pp. 1102–1110. [CrossRef]
Sawant, M. S., and Jain, N. K., 2017, “Investigations on Wear Characteristics of Stellite Coating by Micro-Plasma Transferred arc Powder Deposition Process,” Wear, 378–379, pp. 155–164. [CrossRef]
Sawant, M. S., and Jain, N. K., 2018, “Investigations on Additive Manufacturing of Ti–6Al–4V by Micro-Plasma Transferred arc Powder Deposition Process,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 140(8), p. 081014. [CrossRef]
Gharbi, M., Peyre, P., Gorny, C., Carin, M., Morville, S., Le Masson, P., Carron, D., and Fabbro, R., 2013, “Influence of Various Process Conditions on Surface Finishes Induced by the Direct Metal Deposition Laser Technique on a Ti-6Al-4V Alloy,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 213(5), pp. 791–800. [CrossRef]
Zhao, H., Zhang, G., Yin, Z., and Wu, L., 2012, “Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Thermal Stress in Single-Pass Multi-Layer Weld-Based Rapid Prototyping,” J. Mater. Process. Technol. 212(1), pp. 276–285. [CrossRef]
Safronov, V. A., Khmyrov, R. S., Kotoban, D. V., and Gusarov, A. V., 2017, “Distortions and Residual Stresses at Layer-by-Layer Additive Manufacturing by Fusion,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 139(3), p. 031017. [CrossRef]
Vasinonta, A., Beuth, J. L., and Griffith, M., 2006, “Process Maps for Predicting Residual Stress and Melt Pool Size in the Laser-Based Fabrication of Thin-Walled Structures,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 129(1), pp. 101–109. [CrossRef]
Chew, Y., Pang, J. H. L., Bi, G., and Song, B., 2015, “Thermo-Mechanical Model for Simulating Laser Cladding Induced Residual Stresses With Single and Multiple Clad Beads,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 224, pp. 89–101. [CrossRef]
Jayanath, S., and Achuthan, A., 2018, “A Computationally Efficient Finite Element Framework to Simulate Additive Manufacturing Processes,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 140(4), p. 041009. [CrossRef]
Foroozmehr, A., Badrossamay, M., Foroozmehr, E., Golabi, S., and Mynors, D. J., 2016, “Finite Element Simulation of Selective Laser Melting Process Considering Optical Penetration Depth of Laser in Powder Bed,” Mater. Des. 89, pp. 255–263. [CrossRef]
Zaeh, M. F., and Branner, G., 2010, “Investigations on Residual Stresses and Deformations in Selective Laser Melting,” Prod. Eng. Res. Dev. 4(1), pp. 35–45. [CrossRef]
Zhou, J., Zhang, Y., and Chen, J. K., 2009, “Numerical Simulation of Random Packing of Spherical Particles for Powder-Based Additive Manufacturing,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 131(3), p. 031004. [CrossRef]
Li, C., Liu, Z. Y., Fang, X. Y., and Guo, Y. B., 2018, “On the Simulation Scalability of Predicting Residual Stress and Distortion in Selective Laser Melting,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 140(4), p. 041013. [CrossRef]
Ye, Q., and Chen, S., 2017, “Numerical Modeling of Metal-Based Additive Manufacturing Using Level Set Methods,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 139(7), p. 071019. [CrossRef]
Bass, L., Milner, J., Gnaupel-Herold, T., and Moylan, S., 2018, “Residual Stress in Additive Manufactured Nickel Alloy 625 Parts,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 140(6), p. 061004. [CrossRef]
Jamshidinia, M., Kong, F., and Kovacevic, R., 2013, “Numerical Modeling of Heat Distribution in the Electron Beam Belting of Ti-6Al-4V,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 135(6), p. 061010. [CrossRef]
Denlinger, E. R., Irwin, J., and Michaleris, P., 2014, “Thermomechanical Modeling of Additive Manufacturing Large Parts,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 136(6), p. 061007. [CrossRef]
Hemmesi, K., Farajian, M., and Boin, M., 2017, “Numerical Studies of Welding Residual Stresses in Tubular Joints and Experimental Validations by Means of X-Ray and Neutron Diffraction Analysis,” Mater. Des., 126, 339–350. [CrossRef]
Gan, Z., Ng, H. W., and Devasenapathi, A., 2004, “Deposition-Induced Residual Stresses in Plasma-Sprayed Coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 187(2-3), pp. 307–319. [CrossRef]
Singh, S., Yadaiah, N., Bag, S., and Pal, S., 2014, “Numerical Simulation of Welding-Induced Residual Stress in Fusion Welding Process Using Adaptive Volumetric Heat Source,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Pt. C J. Mech. Eng. Sci. 228(16), pp. 2960–2972. [CrossRef]
Ding, J., Colegrove, P., Mehnen, J., Ganguly, S., Almeida, P. M. S., Wang, F., and Williams, S., 2011, “Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Wire and Arc Additive Layer Manufacturing Process on Large Multi-Layer Parts,” Comput. Mater. Sci. 50(12), pp. 3315–3322.
Mughal, M. P., Fawad, H., and Mufti, R. A., 2006, “Three-Dimensional Finite Element Modeling of Deformation in Weld-Based Rapid Prototyping,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Pt. C J. Mech. Eng. Sci. 220(6), pp. 875–885. [CrossRef]
Kohandehghan, A. R., Serajzadeh, S., and Kokabi, A. H., 2010, “A Study on Residual Stresses in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of AA5251,” Mater. Manuf. Process. 25(11), pp. 1242–1250. [CrossRef]
ANSYS Inc., 2010, “ANSYS 13.0,” ANSYS.
Nikam, S. H., and Jain, N. K., 2017, “Three-Dimensional Thermal Analysis of Multi-Layer Metallic Deposition by Micro-Plasma Transferred arc Process Using Finite Element Simulation,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 249, pp. 264–273. [CrossRef]
Chen, S. C., Jong, W. R., Chang, Y. J., Chang, J. A., and Cin, J. C., 2006, “Rapid Mold Temperature Variation for Assisting the Micro Injection of High Aspect Ratio Micro-Feature Parts Using Induction Heating Technology,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 16(9), pp. 1783–1791. [CrossRef]
Gallina, D., 2011, “Finite Element Prediction of Crack Formation Induced by Quenching in a Forged Valve,” Eng. Fail. Anal. 18(8), pp. 2250–2259. [CrossRef]
Seo, S., Min, O., and Yang, H., 2005, “Constitutive Equation for Ti–6Al–4V at High Temperatures Measured Using the SHPB Technique,” Int. J. Impact Eng. 31(6), pp. 735–754. [CrossRef]
Hu, Z. M., Brooks, J. W., and Dean, T. A., 1998, “The Interfacial Heat Transfer Coefficient in Hot Die Forging of Titanium Alloy,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Pt. C J. Mech. Eng. Sci. 212(6), pp. 485–496. [CrossRef]
Alimardani, M., Toyserkani, E., and Huissoon, J. P., 2007, “Three-Dimensional Numerical Approach for Geometrical Prediction of Multilayer Laser Solid Freeform Fabrication Process,” J. Laser Appl. 19(1), pp. 14–25. [CrossRef]
Lampa, C., Kaplan, A. F. H., Powell, J., and Magnusson, C., 1997, “An Analytical Thermodynamic Model of Laser Welding,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 30, pp. 1293–1299. [CrossRef]
Mills, K. C., 2002, Recommended Values of Thermo-Physical Properties for Selected Commercial Alloys, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, p. 211.
Ho, C. Y., and Chu, T. K., 1977, “Electrical Resistivity and Thermal Conductivity of Nine Selected AISI Stainless Steels,” Center for Information and Numerical Data Analysis and Synthesis Report 45, pp. 36.
Li, J. J. Z., Johnson, W. L., and Rhim, W., 2006, “Thermal Expansion of Liquid Ti-6AI-4V Measured by Electrostatic Levitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), pp. 10–12.
American Iron and Steel Institute, 2010, “High Temperature Characteristics of Stainless Steel,” Nickel Development Institute, https://www.nickelinstitute.org/∼/Media/Files/TechnicalLiterature/High_TemperatureCharacteristicsofStainlessSteel_9004_.pdf. Accessed October 9, 2017.
Mukherjee, T., Zhang, W., and DebRoy, T., 2017, “An Improved Prediction of Residual Stresses and Distortion in Additive Manufacturing,” Comput. Mater. Sci., 126, pp. 360–372. [CrossRef]
Esquivel, A. L., and Evans, K. R., 1968, “X-Ray Diffraction Study of Residual Macro Stresses in Shot-Peened and Fatigued 4130 Steel,” Exp. Mech., 8(11), pp. 496–503. [CrossRef]
Yadroitsev, I., and Yadroitsava, I., 2015, “Evaluation of Residual Stress in Stainless Steel 316L and Ti6Al4V Samples Produced by Selective Laser Melting,” Virtual Phys. Prototyp. 10(2), pp. 67–76. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematic view of the experimental apparatus used for multitrack deposition of metallic materials by the µ-PTA powder deposition process [5] (Reprinted with permission of Elsevier © 2017)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cross section of (a) single-track and and (b) double-track depositions of Ti-6Al-4V by the µ-PTA powder deposition process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Measurement of temperature and thermal cycles: (a) schematic view and a photograph of the location of three thermocouples in the substrate material to measure temperature and (b) photograph of the setup used to record thermal cycles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Variation of (a) modulus of elasticity, (b) Poisson’s ratio, (c) coefficient of thermal expansion, and (d) yield stress of the substrate (AISI 4130 steel) and deposition material (Ti-6Al-4V alloy) with temperature [3639]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Three-dimensional-FES predicted temperature distribution within the melt pool for (a) single-track and (b) double-track deposition by the µ-PTA deposition process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Variation of (a) thermal conductivity, (b) density, and (c) specific heat of the substrate (AISI 4130 steel) and deposition material (Ti-6Al-4V alloy) with temperature [35,36]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic view of heat source used in the µ-PTA deposition process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Schematic view of the locations and directions used for the measurement of residual stresses in the (a) single-track and (b) double-track deposition by the µ-PTA process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Discretized geometry of the substrate and deposition materials used in 3D-FES of temperature distribution, thermal cycles, and residual stresses in multitrack deposition by the µ-PTA process (the inset shows its magnified view)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Sin2(ψ) versus d-spacing graphs plotted in the (a) longitudinal and (b) transverse directions at location “A” of the single-track deposition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparison of FES predicted and experimentally measured thermal cycles by three K-type thermocouples installed at locations: (a) TC1, (b) TC2, and (c) TC3, for double-track deposition of Ti-6Al-4V by the µ-PTA process

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of experimental and simulated residual stresses values in (a) longitudinal direction and (b) transverse direction for single- and double-track depositions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

3D-FES predicted distribution of the residual stresses for (a) single-track deposition and (b) double-track deposition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

3D-FES predicted distribution of the residual stresses at top surface and middle length of the single-track and double-track deposition along the (a) longitudinal direction and (b) transverse direction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

3D-FES predicted distribution of residual stresses in the substrate material at a cross-section cut at middle length of the (a) single-track and (b) double-track deposition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

3D-FES predicted distribution of residual stresses along the width on the top surface of the substrate material for single-, double-, triple-, and quadruple-track deposition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

3D-FES predicted distribution and cross-sectional view of the residual stresses in substrate material for the quadruple-track deposition

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In