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Technical Brief

Joining Lithium-Ion Battery Tabs Using Solder-Reinforced Adhesive

[+] Author and Article Information
Qingxin Zhang

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, P.R. China
e-mail: zhangqingxin@sjtu.edu.cn

Ryan C. Sekol

Manufacturing Systems Research Lab,
General Motors Research & Development Center,
30470 Harley Earl Boulevard,
Warren, MI 48092
e-mail: Ryan.sekol@gm.com

Chaoqun Zhang

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, P.R. China;
State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, P.R. China
e-mail: chaoqunzhang@sjtu.edu.cn

Yongbing Li

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, P.R. China;
State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration,
School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, P.R. China
e-mail: yongbinglee@sjtu.edu.cn

Blair E. Carlson

Manufacturing Systems Research Lab,
General Motors Research & Development Center,
30470 Harley Earl Boulevard,
Warren, MI 48092
e-mail: blair.carlson@gm.com

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 24, 2018; final manuscript received February 6, 2019; published online March 2, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(4), 044502 (Mar 02, 2019) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1686; doi: 10.1115/1.4042842 History: Received September 24, 2018; Accepted February 07, 2019

Reliable and robust tab joints in pouch cells are key to the functional reliability and durability of lithium-ion batteries. In this study, a novel solder-reinforced adhesive (SRA) bonding technology is applied to lithium-ion battery tab joining, and its feasibility is explored by the application of simplified specimens. The three main components involved in the implementation of the SRA process are the substrate, solder ball, and adhesive system. The application of flux to the solder balls and the size of the adhesive application area are the two main process variables. Results showed that both the flux and adhesive area have positive correlation with the mechanical performance due to the formation of a robust connection of the solder and the substrate. In addition, the SRA joints have a relatively lower resistivity than joints fabricated by conventional ultrasonic welding (USW) technology. Thus, there is significant potential for this process to be applied for joining of battery tabs.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Nickel-coated copper foil (ac) and solder balls (d, e). (a) The front view and enlarged A-A cross-sectional view (schematic diagram), (b) the A-A cross-sectional view of a mounted and polished nickel-coated copper foil, and (c) the enlarged image of the nickel coating layer; morphology of (d) flux-free SnPb solder balls and (e) flux-coated SnPb solder balls.

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Fig. 2

The design of joining areas

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Fig. 3

The preparation process of SRA samples. (a) Application of adhesive, (b) solder balls and glass beads spreading, (c) sandwich structure assembling, (d) fastening, (e) curing, and (f) testing.

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Fig. 4

The cross-sectional images and enlarged details of the SnPb solder balls on the nickel-coated copper foils. (a, c) Flux-free SnPb solder ball, (b, d) flux coated SnPb solder ball, and (e) the cross-sectional image of the USW sample.

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Fig. 5

The microstructures of solder–substrate interfaces and local elements distribution in SRA joints. (a, b) Flux-free solder balls, (c, d) flux-coated solder balls, and (e) the elemental distribution of A→B in (d).

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Fig. 6

The distribution of the forces of the (a) flux-free solder ball and (b) flux coated solder ball SRA joints during the cooling stage

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Fig. 7

Lap-shear results as a function of Area (a) peak load, (b) corresponding energy absorption, coach-peel results as a function of Area (c) peak load, and (d) corresponding energy absorption

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Fig. 8

Fractographic analysis of SRA joints after lap-shear testing. One side of the fractography of flux-free SRA joint (a) and the opposite side (b), and (c), (d) for flux-assisted SRA joint and (eh) the partial enlarged details and corresponding EDS mapping results of the selected area in the red ovals of (ad).

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Fig. 9

The electrical resistance results and analysis. (a) The electrical resistance results by a micro-ohm meter, and the resistance networks of (b) ideal and (c) actual SRA joints. (d) and (e) are two opposite sides of shear fracture morphologies of the flux-assisted SRA joint in Area 2 (also given as Figs. 8(c) and 8(d)).

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