0
Research Papers

Influence of Selective Laser Heat Treatment Pattern Position on Geometrical Variation

[+] Author and Article Information
Vaishak Ramesh Sagar

Department of Industrial and Materials Science,
Chalmers University of Technology,
SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
e-mail: vaishak@chalmers.se

Kristina Wärmefjord

Department of Industrial and Materials Science,
Chalmers University of Technology,
SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
e-mail: kristina.warmefjord@chalmers.se

Rikard Söderberg

Department of Industrial and Materials Science,
Chalmers University of Technology,
SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden
e-mail: rikard.soderberg@chalmers.se

1Corresponding author.

Paper presented at the ASME's International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition (IMECE, 2018) conference held in Pittsburgh, USA, number IMECE 2018-86164.

Manuscript received December 7, 2018; final manuscript received February 4, 2019; published online March 2, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Tugrul Ozel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(4), 041016 (Mar 02, 2019) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1848; doi: 10.1115/1.4042831 History: Received December 07, 2018; Accepted February 04, 2019

Selective laser heat treatment allows local modification of material properties and can have a wide range of applications within the automotive industry. Enhanced formability and strength are possible to achieve. As the process involves selective heating, positioning of the heat treatment pattern in local areas is vital. Pattern positioning is often suggested based on the part design and forming aspects of the material to avoid failures during manufacturing. Along with improving material properties in desired local areas, the process also produces unwanted distortion in the material. Such effects on variation should be considered and minimized. In this paper, the heat treatment pattern is offset from its original position and its effect on geometrical variation is investigated. Boron steel blanks are selectively laser heat treated with a specific heat treatment pattern and then cold formed to the desired shape. Two heat treatment pattern dimensions are examined. Geometrical variation at the blank level and after cold forming, and springback after cold forming are observed. Results show that pattern offsetting increases the effect on geometrical variation. Therefore, correct positioning of the heat treatment pattern is important to minimize its effect on geometrical variation along with enhancement in the material properties. Knowledge from this study will contribute to various stages of the geometry assurance process.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Merklein, M., Johannes, M., Lechner, M., and Kuppert, A., 2014, “A Review on Tailored Blanks—Production, Applications and Evaluation,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 214(2), pp. 151–164. [CrossRef]
Asnafi, N., Andersson, R., Persson, M., and Liljengren, M., 2016, “Tailored Boron Steel Sheet Component Properties by Selective Laser Heat Treatment,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Linz, Austria.
Vollertsen, F., and Lange, K., 1998, “Enhancement of Drawability by Local Heat Treatment,” CIRP Ann., 47(1), pp. 181–184. [CrossRef]
Hofmann, A., 2001, “Deep Drawing of Process Optimized Blanks,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 119(1), pp. 127–132. [CrossRef]
Geiger, M., Merklein, M., and Kerausch, M., 2004, “Finite Element Simulation of Deep Drawing of Tailored Heat Treated Blanks,” CIRP Ann., 53(1), pp. 223–226. [CrossRef]
Geiger, M., Merklein, M., Staud, D., and Kaupper, M., 2008, “An Inverse Approach to the Numerical Design of the Process Sequence of Tailored Heat Treated Blanks,” Prod. Eng., 2(1), pp. 15–20. [CrossRef]
Geiger, M., Merklein, M., and Vogt, U., 2009, “Aluminum Tailored Heat Treated Blanks,” Prod. Eng., 3(4–5), pp. 401–410. [CrossRef]
Hung, N., and Marion, M., 2012, “Improved Formability of Aluminum Alloys Using Laser Induced Hardening of Tailored Heat Treated Blanks,” Phys. Proc., 39, pp. 318–326. [CrossRef]
Merklein, M., and Nguyen, H., 2010, “Advanced Laser Heat Treatment with Respect for the Application for Tailored Heat Treated Blanks,” Phys. Proc., 5, pp. 233–242. [CrossRef]
Mjali, K. V., Els-Botes, A., and Mashinini, P. M., 2018, “Residual Stress Distribution and the Concept of Total Fatigue Stress in Laser and Mechanically Formed Commercially Pure Grade 2 Titanium Alloy Plates,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 140(6), 061005. [CrossRef]
Neugebauer, R., Scheffler, S., Poprawe, R., and Weisheit, A., 2009, “Local Laser Heat Treatment of Ultra High Strength Steels to Improve Formability,” Prod. Eng., 3(4-5), pp. 347–351. [CrossRef]
Conrads, L., Daamen, M., Hirt, G., and Bambach, M., 2016, “Improving the Crash Behavior of Structural Components Made of Advanced High Strength Steel by Local Heat Treatment,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Linz, Austria.
Conrads, L., Liebsch, C., and Hirt, G., 2017, “Increasing the Energy Absorption Capacity of Structural Components Made of Low Alloy Steel by Combining Strain Hardening and Local Heat Treatment,” Proc. Eng., 207, pp. 257–262. [CrossRef]
Xing, Y., 2017, “Fixture Layout Design of Sheet Metal Parts Based on Global Optimization Algorithms,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 139(10), 101004. [CrossRef]
Gameros, A. A., Axinte, D., Siller, H. R., Lowth, S., and Winton, P., 2016, “Experimental and Numerical Study of a Fixturing System for Complex Geometry and Low Stiffness Components,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 139(4), 045001. [CrossRef]
Dutta Majumdar, J., and Manna, I., 2003, “Laser Processing of Materials,” Sadhana, 28(3), pp. 495–562. [CrossRef]
Chen, Y. F., Huang, T. M., Kao, C. F., Wang, C. L., and Wang, S. C., 1997, “Optimization in Scaling Fiber-Coupled Laser-Diode End-Pumped Lasers to Higher Power: Influence of Thermal Effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron., 33(8), pp. 1424–1429. [CrossRef]
Steen, W. M., and Mazumder, J., 2010, “Laser Surface Treatment,” Laser Material Processing, Springer, London, pp. 295–347.
Mohammadi, A., Vanhove, H., Van Bael, A., Seefeldt, M., and Duflou, J. R., 2016, “Effect of Laser Transformation Hardening on the Accuracy of SPIF Formed Parts,” J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 139(1), 011007. [CrossRef]
Pretorius, T., 2017, “Laser Forming,” The Theory of Laser Materials Processing: Heat and Mass Transfer in Modern Technology, J. Dowden and W. Schulz, eds., Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 307–340.
Söderberg, R., and Lindkvist, L., 2000, “Robust Design & Tolerancing from Concept to Process Selection,” CIRP International Seminar on Manufacturing Systems, Stockholm, Sweden.
Söderberg, R., Lindkvist, L., and Dahlström, S., 2006, “Computer-Aided Robustness Analysis for Compliant Assemblies,” J. Eng. Des., 17(5), pp. 411–428. [CrossRef]
Sagar, V. R., Wärmefjord, K., and Söderberg, R., 2018, “Geometrical Variation from Selective Laser Heat Treatment of Boron Steels,” Proc. CIRP, 75, pp. 409–414. [CrossRef]
Söderberg, R., Lindkvist, L., and Carlson, J., 2006, “Virtual Geometry Assurance for Effective Product Realization,” First Nordic Conference on Product Lifecycle Management-NordPLM, Göteborg, Sweden, pp. 25–26.
Söderberg, R., Lindkvist, L., and Carlson, J., 2006, “Managing Physical Dependencies Through Location System Design,” J. Eng. Des., 17(4), pp. 325–346. [CrossRef]
Wärmefjord, K., Söderberg, R., and Lindkvist, L., 2014, “Decoupled Fixturing Strategies for Minimized Geometrical Variation During Cutting of Stamped Parts,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part B, 228(11), pp. 1401–1408. [CrossRef]
Andersson, A., 2007, “Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of Springback in Advanced High Strength Steel,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 16(3), pp. 301–307. [CrossRef]
RD&T Technology, 2017, “Improving Decision Making by Simulating and Visualizing the Effect of Geometrical Variation”, accessed November 28, 2018, http://www.rdnt.se/.
Soderberg, R., and Lindkvist, L., 1999, “Computer Aided Assembly Robustness Evaluation,” J. Eng. Des., 10(2), pp. 165–181. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Selective laser heat treatment process setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A distorted laser heat-treated blank

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Illustration of the 3-2-1 locating scheme

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Sequence of steps followed in the experimental study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Blank dimensions for the test, all units in mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Heat treatment pattern (a) pattern A—nominal position and (b) pattern B—nominal position, all units in mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Heat treatment pattern (a) pattern A—offset position and (b) pattern B—offset position, all units in mm

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Pattern offset strategy based on the flex-rail part

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Laser heating direction sequence strategy

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

(a) Laser heat treated blank—pattern A and (b) after forming

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Positioning system for 3D scanning

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

RMS and mean deviation of selective laser heat treated blanks (a) pattern A—nominal, (b) pattern A—offset, (c) pattern B—nominal and (d) pattern B—offset

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

RMS and mean deviation of formed parts (a) pattern A—nominal, (b) pattern A—offset, (c) pattern B—nominal, and (d) pattern B—offset

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

(a) Sections across the flex-rail part for springback assessment and (b) section view A-A example

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In