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Research Papers

Sustainable Manufacturing of High-Precision, Heat-Resistant Aspherical Lenses Using Ultraviolet Illumination With Prognosis of Remaining Useful Life

[+] Author and Article Information
Joongeok Kim

National Center for Optically-Assisted
Mechanical Systems,
50, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu,
Seoul 03722, South Korea
e-mail: hellobrian@yonsei.ac.kr

Juhee Lim

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Yonsei University,
50, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu,
Seoul 03722, South Korea
e-mail: juheelim@yonsei.ac.kr

Changsu Park

School of Mechanical Engineering,
National Center for Optically-Assisted
Mechanical Systems,
Yonsei University,
50, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu,
Seoul 03722, South Korea
e-mail: csonlyone@yonsei.ac.kr

Ho Myung

School of Mechanical Engineering,
National Center for Optically-Assisted
Mechanical Systems,
Yonsei University,
50, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu,
Seoul 03722, South Korea
e-mail: Myungho@yonsei.ac.kr

Jongsoo Lee

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Yonsei University,
50, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu,
Seoul 03722, South Korea
e-mail: jleej@yonsei.ac.kr

Shinill Kang

School of Mechanical Engineering,
National Center for Optically-Assisted
Mechanical Systems,
Yonsei University,
50, Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu,
Seoul 03722, South Korea
e-mail: snlkang@yonsei.ac.kr

1Corresponding authors.

Manuscript received April 30, 2018; final manuscript received November 7, 2018; published online December 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Karl R. Haapala.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(2), 021014 (Dec 24, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1289; doi: 10.1115/1.4042125 History: Received April 30, 2018; Revised November 07, 2018

Recently, carbon emissions and global warming have become major issues, and efforts are being made to develop sustainable manufacturing systems and improve product lifespans. Waste and greenhouse gases created during manufacturing can be minimized using sustainable processes and by proactively considering the environment during product design and fabrication. Miniaturization of optical parts is key in the maturing mobile device market; the demand for ultra-small light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and aspherical lenses is growing rapidly. Small aspherical lenses are created using injection molding, wafer-level optics, and glass molding. Traditionally, injection molding was associated with excellent transferability, and is suitable for mass production. However, considerable energy is required to create high internal cavity pressures and high temperatures. Furthermore, a great deal of waste such as runners is created, and the lenses are unstable at high temperature. We sought to resolve these issues by using sustainable manufacturing concepts in the design stage. To this end, we used ultraviolet (UV)-curable resin to mold high-precision lenses exhibiting excellent heat-resistance. We proposed a methodology to mold ultra-small optical lenses using UV-curable resin to improve material and energy efficiency compared with the traditional injection molding process. We employed a prognostics to predict the life cycle of the system and improve sustainability.

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Figures

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Fig. 6

Modulation transfer function versus field result of the fabricated lens module: (a) tangential direction and (b) sagittal direction

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Fig. 7

(a) Photographic and Imaging Manufacturers Association (PIMA) resolution test image. (b) Lenses assembled on a 6.0 × 5.2 × 3.0 mm3 camera barrel.

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Fig. 5

(a) Schematic image of the desired/designed lens. (b) Measurement of form deviation of the lens surface after fabrication.

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Fig. 4

Total energy consumption (kW) of our lens molding system and traditional injection machines

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Fig. 3

Material consumption by proposed molding system and traditional injection machines

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the lens molding process. The system consists of an upper mold transparent to UV light, a lower metal mold, a mold guide aligning the upper and lower molds, and a dispensing system. The picker robot transfers cured lenses to the lens tray.

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Fig. 1

(a) A structure requiring a relatively large amount of energy to maintain polymer melting and cavity pressure. This structure wastes over 90% of all material because of the sprues and runners used in traditional injection molding methods. (b) Structure of our extendable, 16-cavity lens molding system, which molds a UV-curable polymer in a semitransparent cavity; waste is minimal.

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Fig. 8

Thermal degradation of the UV-curable polymer at 100 °C over a 240-h period: transmittance measurement was done at 450 nm

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Fig. 9

Degradation model-based prognoses: (a) MCMC sampling and (b) the PF method [34]

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Fig. 10

Remaining useful life prediction using the MCMC method: (a) distribution of estimated parameters, (b) predicted RULs, and (c) prediction of degradation, parameter b for the degradation model, and parameter s for the standard deviation of the noise

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Fig. 11

Remaining useful life prediction using the PF method: (a) distribution of the estimated parameters, (b) predicted RULs, and (c) prediction of degradation, parameter b for the degradation model and parameter s for the standard deviation of the noise

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Fig. 12

Performance evaluation of the PF method (= 0.05): (a) 90% PI and (b) prognosis horizon (PH, α= 0.05)

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