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Research Papers

Repairing Automotive Dies With Directed Energy Deposition: Industrial Application and Life Cycle Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Jennifer Bennett

Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road,
Evanston, IL 60208;
DMG MORI Advanced Solutions,
2400 Huntington Boulevard,
Hoffman Estates, IL 60192
e-mail: jenniferbennett2014@u.northwestern.edu

Daniel Garcia

Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road,
Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: danielgarcia2018@u.northwestern.edu

Marie Kendrick

Toyota Motor North America,
100 Cherry Blossom Way,
Troy, MO 63379
e-mail: marie.kendrick@toyota.com

Travis Hartman

Toyota Motor North America,
100 Cherry Blossom Way,
Troy, MO 63379
e-mail: travis.hartman@toyota.com

Gregory Hyatt

DMG MORI Advanced Solutions,
2400 Huntington Boulevard,
Hoffman Estates, IL 60192
e-mail: ghyatt@dmgmori-usa.com

Kornel Ehmann

Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road,
Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: k-ehmann@northwestern.edu

Fengqi You

Robert Frederick Smith School of Chemical
and Biomolecular Engineering,
Cornell University,
Ithaca, NY 14853
e-mail: fengqi.you@cornell.edu

Jian Cao

Northwestern University,
2145 Sheridan Road,
Evanston, IL 60208
e-mail: jcao@northwestern.edu

1Corresponding author.

2J. Bennett and D. Garcia contributed equally to this work.

Manuscript received May 18, 2018; final manuscript received October 9, 2018; published online December 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: William Bernstein.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(2), 021019 (Dec 24, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1347; doi: 10.1115/1.4042078 History: Received May 18, 2018; Revised October 09, 2018

Powder-based additive manufacturing technologies are developing rapidly. To assess their applicability, comparison of performance and environmental impacts between additive technologies and conventional techniques must be performed. Toyota manufactures over two million aluminum four-cylinder engines in the U.S. each year via die casting. The dies used in this process are traditionally repaired via tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and only last an average of 20.8% of the number of cycles of the original die life before another repair is needed. A hybrid repair process involving machining away the damaged areas and then rebuilding them additively via powder-blown directed energy deposition (DED) has been developed. The die repaired via DED resulted in the same life as the original die. The use of DED repair eliminated the need for emergency repairs and nonscheduled downtime on the line because the DED repaired dies last for as many cycles as the original die before another repair is needed. Life cycle analyses were conducted comparing the traditional welding repair process to the DED repair process. The results show that the DED repair process results in significantly less damage to the assessed impact categories except for ionizing radiation. Therefore, it can be concluded that the DED repair process could lessen most environmental impacts compared to traditional welding repair. Further work toward increasing energy and material efficiencies of the method could yield further reductions in environmental impacts.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Die condition before repair

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Fig. 2

Target areas for repair

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Fig. 3

Machined die before deposition

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Fig. 6

System boundary considered for the welding repair process life cycle

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Fig. 7

System boundary considered for the DED repair life cycle

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Fig. 8

Eco-Indicator 99 Scores for the proposed DED repair method. Ozone layer depletion and ionizing radiation impacts were negligible.

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Fig. 9

Impact breakdown of the DED repair Method

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Fig. 10

Relative contributions of each process in the DED repair life cycle

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Fig. 11

Eco-Indicator 99 Scores for the conventional welding repair method. Ionizing radiation and ozone layer depletion impacts were negligible.

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Fig. 12

Impact breakdown of the conventional welding repair method

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Fig. 13

Impact improvement of the DED repair method compared to the conventional welding repair method

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Fig. 14

Impact improvement of the DED repair method compared to TIG welding for an increase in welding efficiency of 25% (left) and decrease of 25% (right)

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Fig. 15

Impact improvement of the DED repair method compared to TIG welding for an decrease in electricity consumption during H13 atomization of 25% (left) and increase of 25% (right)

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Fig. 16

Impact improvement of the DED repair method compared to TIG welding for an decrease in electricity consumption during the DED repair process of 25% (left) and increase of 25% (right)

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