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Research Papers

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Defect Characteristics During Milling of Aluminum Honeycomb Core

[+] Author and Article Information
Qinglong An

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: qlan@sjtu.edu.cn

Jiaqiang Dang, Weiwei Ming, Kunxian Qiu, Ming Chen

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 8, 2018; final manuscript received October 23, 2018; published online January 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Guillaume Fromentin.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(3), 031006 (Jan 17, 2019) (14 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1512; doi: 10.1115/1.4041834 History: Received July 08, 2018; Revised October 23, 2018

The honeycomb sandwich structure has been widely used in the aerospace industry due to its high specific strength and stiffness. However, the machining defects of the aluminum honeycomb core (AHC) have become the key factor that restricts its application. In this paper, the defects' characteristics including the formation mechanism, distribution characteristic, and cutting process of honeycomb cell walls during AHC milling process were experimentally investigated. Furthermore, using normalized Cockcroft and Latham ductile fracture criterion and Johnson–Cook (JC) constitutive model, the numerical simulation of the AHC machining process was conducted concerning the entrance angle. It is indicated that six categories of milling defects are obtained and the quantity as well as distribution regularity of AHC milling defects are determined by the double effects of both the entrance angle and cutting force. Most of the surface defects of honeycomb materials were found concentrated in three regions, named by zones I–III, in which extruding, shear, and tensile deformation was mainly generated, respectively. Besides, the finite element simulation results also agree well with the experimental findings. Finally, a novel optimization method to avoid defects in the aforementioned regions by controlling the entrance angle of all the honeycomb walls during the cutting process was proposed in this paper. Meanwhile, the optimal control equations of the entrance angle for all cell walls were derived. This method was verified by milling experiments at last and the results showed that the optimization effect was obvious since the quality of the machined surface was greatly improved.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

AHC workpiece and the cutting tool

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Fig. 3

Typical defects of honeycomb core material: (a) tearing burr, (b) cell wall cracks, (c) cell wall depression, (d) cell deformation, (e) node defects, and (f) double wall degumming

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Fig. 4

Statistical data of different types of defects

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Fig. 5

Relationship between cell deformation and the cutting temperature

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Fig. 6

Relationship between cell deformation and the cutting force component Fx

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Fig. 7

Relationship between total defects, wall-type defects, and cutting force component Fx

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Fig. 8

Relationship between tearing burrs and entrance angle: (a) regular distribution of tearing burrs and (b) entrance angle measured under digital microscope

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Fig. 9

Distribution of defects while milling along Y direction: (a) number of wall type defects, (b) defects on up milling surface, (c) defects on down milling surface, and (d) distribution map of total defects

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Fig. 10

Distribution of defects while milling along X direction: (a) number of wall type defects, (b) defects on up milling surface, (c) defects on down milling surface, and (d) distribution map of total defects

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Fig. 11

(a) Test samples of four-layer honeycomb walls and (b) the experimental cutting force

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Fig. 12

Relationship between honeycomb wall cutting force and distribution of defects

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Fig. 13

(a) Schematic diagram of honeycomb wall cutting process, (b) local simplification of honeycomb core cutting process, and (c) tool model [37]

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Fig. 14

Cutting simulation of honeycomb wall in zones I–III

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Fig. 15

Variation of θ of all cell walls in Y direction

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Fig. 16

Geometric relationship between entrance angle, tool swing angle and cutting width of sides a, d

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Fig. 17

Geometric relationship between entrance angle, tool swing angle, and cutting width of sides c, f

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Fig. 18

Value interval of w

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Fig. 19

Comparison of surface quality of AHC: (a) after the optimization of w and (b) before the optimization of w

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