Research Papers

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Defect Characteristics During Milling of Aluminum Honeycomb Core

[+] Author and Article Information
Qinglong An

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: qlan@sjtu.edu.cn

Jiaqiang Dang, Weiwei Ming, Kunxian Qiu, Ming Chen

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 8, 2018; final manuscript received October 23, 2018; published online January 17, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Guillaume Fromentin.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(3), 031006 (Jan 17, 2019) (14 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1512; doi: 10.1115/1.4041834 History: Received July 08, 2018; Revised October 23, 2018

The honeycomb sandwich structure has been widely used in the aerospace industry due to its high specific strength and stiffness. However, the machining defects of the aluminum honeycomb core (AHC) have become the key factor that restricts its application. In this paper, the defects' characteristics including the formation mechanism, distribution characteristic, and cutting process of honeycomb cell walls during AHC milling process were experimentally investigated. Furthermore, using normalized Cockcroft and Latham ductile fracture criterion and Johnson–Cook (JC) constitutive model, the numerical simulation of the AHC machining process was conducted concerning the entrance angle. It is indicated that six categories of milling defects are obtained and the quantity as well as distribution regularity of AHC milling defects are determined by the double effects of both the entrance angle and cutting force. Most of the surface defects of honeycomb materials were found concentrated in three regions, named by zones I–III, in which extruding, shear, and tensile deformation was mainly generated, respectively. Besides, the finite element simulation results also agree well with the experimental findings. Finally, a novel optimization method to avoid defects in the aforementioned regions by controlling the entrance angle of all the honeycomb walls during the cutting process was proposed in this paper. Meanwhile, the optimal control equations of the entrance angle for all cell walls were derived. This method was verified by milling experiments at last and the results showed that the optimization effect was obvious since the quality of the machined surface was greatly improved.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Zenkert, D. , 1997, Introduction to Sandwich Construction, Engineering Materials Advisory Services Ltd, Worcestershire, UK.
Klocke, F. , Soo, S. L. , Karpuschewski, B. , Webster, A. J. , Novovice, D. , Elfizyf, A. , Axinte, A. D. , and Tönissena, S. , 2015, “Abrasive Machining of Advanced Aerospace Alloys and Composites,” CIRP Ann.-Manuf. Technol., 64(2), pp. 581–604. [CrossRef]
Wang, J. , Gao, H. , Ding, L. , Xie, Y. , Song, B. , Ma, J. , Lin, M. , and Sun, R. , 2016, “Enhancement of Tensile Strength of Embedded Parts in Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic/Aluminum Honeycomb Sandwich Structures for Vehicle,” Compos. Struct., 152, pp. 800–806. [CrossRef]
Lee, W. E. , 1997, Cellular Solids: Structure and Properties, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Chen, D. H. , and Ozaki, S. , 2009, “Stress Concentration Due to Defects in a Honeycomb Structure,” Compos. Struct., 89(1), pp. 52–59. [CrossRef]
Liu, L. , Wang, H. , and Guan, Z. , 2015, “Experimental and Numerical Study on the Mechanical Response of Nomex Honeycomb Core Under Transverse Loading,” Compos. Struct., 121, pp. 304–314. [CrossRef]
Ivañez, I. , Fernandez-Cañadas, L. M. , and Sanchez-Saez, S. , 2017, “Compressive Deformation and Energy-Absorption Capability of Aluminium Honeycomb Core,” Compos. Struct., 174, pp. 123–133. [CrossRef]
Gibson, L. J. , Ashby, M. F. , Schajer, G. S. , and Robertson, C. I. , 1982, “The Mechanics of Two-Dimensional Cellular Materials,” Proc. R. Soc. A-Math. Phys., 382(1782), pp. 25–42. [CrossRef]
Ashby, M. F. , and Medalist, R. F. M. , 1983, “The Mechanical Properties of Cellular Solids,” Metall. Trans. A, 14(9), pp. 1755–1769. [CrossRef]
Ashab, A. S. M. , Ruan, D. , Lu, G. , Xu, S. , and Wen, C. , 2015, “Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical Behavior of Aluminum Honeycombs Under Quasi-Static and Dynamic Indentation,” Mater. Des., 74, pp. 138–149. [CrossRef]
Fard, M. Y. , Sadat, S. M. , Raji, B. B. , and Chattopadhyay, A. , 2014, “Damage Characterization of Surface and Sub-Surface Defects in Stitch-Bonded Biaxial Carbon/Epoxy Composites,” Compos.: Part B, 56, pp. 821–829. [CrossRef]
Abbadi, A. , Tixier, C. , Gilgert, J. , and Azari, Z. , 2015, “Experimental Study on the Fatigue Behaviour of Honeycomb Sandwich Panels With Artificial Defects,” Compos. Struct., 120, pp. 394–405. [CrossRef]
Chen, D. H. , and Masuda, K. , 2017, “Estimation of Stress Concentration Due to Defects in a Honeycomb Core,” Eng. Fract. Mech., 172, pp. 61–72. [CrossRef]
Jahromi, A. S. , and Bahr, B. , 2010, “An Analytical Method for Predicting Cutting Forces in Orthogonal Machining of Unidirectional Composites,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 70(16), pp. 2290–2297. [CrossRef]
Rao, G. V. G. , Mahajan, P. , and Bhatnagar, N. , 2007, “Machining of UD-GFRP Composites Chip Formation Mechanism,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 67(11–12), pp. 2271–2281.
Karimi, N. Z. , Minak, G. , and Kianfar, P. , 2015, “Analysis of Damage Mechanisms in Drilling of Composite Materials by Acoustic Emission,” Compos. Struct., 131, pp. 107–114. [CrossRef]
Davim, J. P. , 2010, Machining Composite Materials, Indian Society of Technical Education, London.
Astakhov, V. P. , and Outeiro, J. C. , 2008, Machining: Fundamentals and Recent Advances, Springer, New York.
Haddad, M. , Zitoune, R. , Eyma, F. , and Castanie, B. , 2014, “Study of the Surface Defects and Dust Generated During Trimming of CFRP: Influence of Tool Geometry, Machining Parameters and Cutting Speed Range,” Compos. Part A-Appl S, 66, pp. 142–154. [CrossRef]
Abrao, A. M. , Campos Rubio, J. C. , Faria, P. E. , and Davim, J. P. , 2008, “The Effect of Cutting Tool Geometry on Thrust Force and Delamination When Drilling Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite,” Mater. Des., 29(2), pp. 508–513. [CrossRef]
Xu, J. , An, Q. , and Chen, M. , 2014, “A Comparative Evaluation of Polycrystalline Diamond Drills in Drilling High-Strength T800S/250F CFRP,” Compos. Struct., 117, pp. 71–82. [CrossRef]
Wang, D. H. , Ramulu, M. , and Arola, D. , 1995, “Orthogonal Cutting Mechanisms of Graphite/Epoxy Composite—Part I: Unidirectional Laminate,” Int. J. Mach. Tool Manuf., 35(12), pp. 1623–1638. [CrossRef]
Wang, D. H. , Ramulu, M. , and Arola, D. , 1995, “Orthogonal Cutting Mechanisms of Graphite/Epoxy Composite—Part II: Multi-Directional Laminate,” Int. J. Mach. Tool Manuf., 35(12), pp. 1639–1648. [CrossRef]
Davim, J. P. , and Reis, P. , 2003, “Study of Delamination in Drilling Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) Using Design Experiments,” Compos. Struct., 59(4), pp. 481–487. [CrossRef]
Khashaba, U. A. , and El-Keran, A. A. , 2017, “Drilling Analysis of Thin Woven Glass-Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 249, pp. 415–425. [CrossRef]
Gaitonde, V. N. , Karnik, S. R. , Rubio, J. C. , Correia, A. E. , Abrao, A. M. , and Davim, J. P. , 2008, “Analysis of Parametric Influence on Delamination in High-Speed Drilling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Composites,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 203(1–3), pp. 431–438. [CrossRef]
Rubio, J. C. , Abrao, A. M. , Faria, P. E. , Correia, A. E. , and Davim, J. P. , 2008, “Effects of High Speed in the Drilling of Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic: Evaluation of the Delamination Factor,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 48(6), pp. 715–720. [CrossRef]
Krishnaraj, V. , Prabukarthi, A. , Ramanathan, A. , Elanghovan, N. , Kumar, M. S. , Zitoune, R. , and Davim, J. P. , 2012, “Optimization of Machining Parameters at High Speed Drilling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) Laminates,” Compos.: Part B, 43(4), pp. 1791–1799. [CrossRef]
Nelson, S. , English, S. , and Briggs, T. , 2016, “Composite Laminate Failure Parameter Optimization Through Four-Point Flexure Experimentation and Analysis,” Compos.: Part B, 97, pp. 92–102. [CrossRef]
Jain, N. K. , Jain, V. K. , and Deb, K. , 2007, “Optimization of Process Parameters of Mechanical Type Advanced Machining Processes Using Genetic Algorithms,” Int. J. Mach. Tool Manuf., 47(6), pp. 900–919. [CrossRef]
Lin, J. T. , Bhattacharyya, D. , and Kecman, V. , 2003, “Multiple Regression and Neural Networks Analyses in Composites Machining,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 63(3–4), pp. 539–548. [CrossRef]
Davim, J. P. , Rubio, J. C. , and Abrão, A. M. , 2007, “A Novel Approach Based on Digital Image Analysis to Evaluate the Delamination Factor After Drilling Composite Laminates,” Compos. Sci. Technol., 67(9), pp. 1939–1945. [CrossRef]
Hassan, G. A. , and Suliman, S. M. A. , 1990, “Experimental Modelling and Optimization of Turning Medium Carbon Steel,” Int. J. Prod. Res., 28(6), pp. 1057–1065. [CrossRef]
Grzesik, W. , and Brol, S. , 2003, “Hybrid Approach to Surface Roughness Evaluation in Multistage Machining Processes,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 134(2), pp. 265–272. [CrossRef]
Kamatala, M. K. , Baumgartner, E. T. , and Moon, K. S. , 1996, “Turned Surface Finish Prediction Based on Fuzzy Logic Theory,” 20th International Conference on Computer and Industrial Engineering, Miami, FL, Mar. 3–6, pp. 101–104.
Ip, W. L. R. , 1998, “A Fuzzy Basis Material Removal Optimization Strategy for Sculptured Surface Machining Using Ball-Nosed Cutters,” Int. J. Prod. Res., 36(9), pp. 2553–2571. [CrossRef]
Qiu, K. , Ming, W. , Shen, L. , An, Q. , and Chen, M. , 2017, “Study on the Cutting Force in Machining of Aluminum Honeycomb Core Material,” Compos. Struct., 164, pp. 58–67. [CrossRef]
Rion, J. , Leterrier, Y. , and Månson, J. A. E. , 2008, “Prediction of the Adhesive Fillet Size for Skin to Honeycomb Core Bonding in Ultra-Light Sandwich Structures,” Compos. Part A, 39(9), pp. 1547–1555. [CrossRef]
Gandy, H. T. N. , 2012, “Adhesiveless Honeycomb Sandwich Structure With Carbon Graphite Prepreg for Primary Structural Application: A Comparative Study to the Use of Adhesive Film,” Doctoral dissertation, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS.
Zitoune, R. , Mansori, M. E. , and Krishnaraj, V. , 2013, “Tribo-Functional Design of Double Cone Drill Implications in Tool Wear During Drilling of Copper Mesh/CFRP/Woven Ply,” Wear, 302(1–2), pp. 1560–1567. [CrossRef]
Zenia, S. , Ayed, L. B. , Nouari, M. , and Delamézière, A. , 2015, “An Elastoplastic Constitutive Damage Model to Simulate the Chip Formation Process and Workpiece Subsurface Defects When Machining CFRP Composites,” Procedia CIRP, 31, pp. 100–105. [CrossRef]
Jaafar, M. , Atlati, S. , Makich, H. , Nouari, M. , Moufki, A. , and Julliere, B. , 2017, “A 3D FE Modeling of Machining Process of Nomex®; Honeycomb Core: Influence of the Cell Structure Behaviour and Specific Tool Geometry,” Procedia CIRP, 58, pp. 505–510. [CrossRef]
Wang, X. M. , and Zhang, L. C. , 2003, “An Experimental Investigation Into the Orthogonal Cutting of Unidirectional Fibre Reinforced Plastics,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 43(10), pp. 1015–1022. [CrossRef]
Zhou, H. , Xu, P. , Xie, S. , Feng, Z. , and Wang, D. , 2018, “Mechanical Performance and Energy Absorption Properties of Structures Combining Two Nomex Honeycombs,” Compos. Struct., 185, pp. 524–536. [CrossRef]
Ramaswamy, B. , and Kawahara, M. , 2010, “Arbitrary Lagrangian–Eulerianc Finite Element Method for Unsteady, Convective, Incompressible Viscous Free Surface Fluid Flow,” Int. J. Numer. Methods Fluids, 7(10), pp. 1053–1075. [CrossRef]
Johnson, G. R. , and Cook, W. H. , 1983, “A Constitutive Model and Data for Metals Subjected to Large Strains, High Strain Rates and High Temperatures,” Seventh International Symposium on Ballistics, The Hague, The Netherlands, Apr. 19–21, pp. 541–548.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

AHC workpiece and the cutting tool

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Typical defects of honeycomb core material: (a) tearing burr, (b) cell wall cracks, (c) cell wall depression, (d) cell deformation, (e) node defects, and (f) double wall degumming

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Statistical data of different types of defects

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Relationship between cell deformation and the cutting temperature

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Relationship between cell deformation and the cutting force component Fx

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Relationship between total defects, wall-type defects, and cutting force component Fx

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Relationship between tearing burrs and entrance angle: (a) regular distribution of tearing burrs and (b) entrance angle measured under digital microscope

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Distribution of defects while milling along Y direction: (a) number of wall type defects, (b) defects on up milling surface, (c) defects on down milling surface, and (d) distribution map of total defects

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Distribution of defects while milling along X direction: (a) number of wall type defects, (b) defects on up milling surface, (c) defects on down milling surface, and (d) distribution map of total defects

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

(a) Test samples of four-layer honeycomb walls and (b) the experimental cutting force

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Relationship between honeycomb wall cutting force and distribution of defects

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

(a) Schematic diagram of honeycomb wall cutting process, (b) local simplification of honeycomb core cutting process, and (c) tool model [37]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Cutting simulation of honeycomb wall in zones I–III

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Variation of θ of all cell walls in Y direction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Geometric relationship between entrance angle, tool swing angle and cutting width of sides a, d

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Geometric relationship between entrance angle, tool swing angle, and cutting width of sides c, f

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Value interval of w

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Comparison of surface quality of AHC: (a) after the optimization of w and (b) before the optimization of w



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In