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Research Papers

Finite Element Analysis of Additive Manufacturing Based on Fused Deposition Modeling: Distortions Prediction and Comparison With Experimental Data

[+] Author and Article Information
Alberto Cattenone

Department of Civil Engineering
and Architecture,
University of Pavia,
Via Ferrata 3,
Pavia 27100, Italy
e-mail: alberto.cattenone01@universitadipavia.it

Simone Morganti

Department of Electrical, Computer, and
Biomedical Engineering,
University of Pavia,
Via Ferrata 5,
Pavia 27100, Italy
e-mail: simone.morganti@unipv.it

Gianluca Alaimo

Department of Civil Engineering and
Architecture,
University of Pavia,
Via Ferrata 3,
Pavia 27100, Italy
e-mail: ginaluca.alaimo01@universitadipavia.it

Ferdinando Auricchio

Professor
Department of Civil Engineering
and Architecture,
University of Pavia,
Via Ferrata 3,
Pavia 27100, Italy
e-mail: auricchio@unipv.it

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received July 2, 2018; final manuscript received September 25, 2018; published online November 8, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Zhijian (ZJ) Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(1), 011010 (Nov 08, 2018) (17 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1503; doi: 10.1115/1.4041626 History: Received July 02, 2018; Revised September 25, 2018

Additive manufacturing (or three-dimensional (3D) printing) is constantly growing as an innovative process for the production of complex-shape components. Among the seven recognized 3D printing technologies, fused deposition modeling (FDM) covers a very important role, not only for producing representative 3D models, but, mainly due to the development of innovative material like Peek and Ultem, also for realizing structurally functional components. However, being FDM a production process involving high thermal gradients, non-negligible deformations and residual stresses may affect the 3D printed component. In this work we focus on meso/macroscopic simulations of the FDM process using abaqus software. After describing in detail the methodological process, we investigate the impact of several parameters and modeling choices (e.g., mesh size, material model, time-step size) on simulation outcomes and we validate the obtained results with experimental measurements.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Overall framework of the FDM printing process. In the central part, the virtual calculation of the GCode file from a 3D CAD model of the component. On the left, the physical printing process; on the right, the simulation process. The GCode information are used both to perform the physical printing and the simulation of the part.

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Fig. 2

Sequence of standard instructions contained in a GCode file realized with KISSlicer

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Fig. 3

Element activation process. The elliptical extruded filament section is substituted by the circumscribed marching rectangle. The rectangle moves following the filament centerline. When the center of an element falls into the volume described by the marching rectangle, then the element is activated.

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Fig. 4

Variation of thermal conductivity and specific heat with temperature in the commercial ABS filament [19]. Tg represents the glass transition temperature.

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Fig. 5

Variation of the Young's modulus with the temperature in the commercial ABS filament [20]. Tg represents the glass transition temperature.

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Fig. 6

Variation of the tensile yield stress with the temperature in the commercial ABS filament [21,23]. Tg represents the glass transition temperature and m represents the slope of the linear part.

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Fig. 7

Geometry of the planar spring (a) and bridge model (b)

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Fig. 8

Layout of the printed parts with respect to the building plate: (a) planar spring and (b) bridge

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Fig. 9

Test points for the evaluation of the error between simulation results and experimental measurements

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Fig. 10

Results of the thermal and the mechanical analysis obtained with the smallest (Δt1) and the largest (Δt9) time steps. The time-step choice has a significant influence on the element activation temperature, while it has less influence on the mechanical analyses results.

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Fig. 11

(a) Decreasing of the activation temperature with increasing time steps and (b) Von Mises stress (σvm) and stress tensor components (σij) variation with time-step

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Fig. 12

Computational times variation (CPU time) with the time-step. A significant increase in computational times is observed, in particular, for the mechanical analysis when Δt is lower than 1 s.

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Fig. 13

Adopted meshing strategies for the planar spring simulation, according to Table 5

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Fig. 14

Temperature and Von Mises stress distribution obtained varying the meshing strategy. Significantly different activation temperature is observed for meshing strategies M-1 and M-3/5. Local modifications of the stress path can be observed at the corners of the model, between meshing strategies M-1 and M-3/5.

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Fig. 15

Computational times variation (CPU time) with increasing number of elements. We appreciate a linear behavior of the computational times both for the thermal and the mechanical analysis.

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Fig. 16

Von Mises stress at the end of the printing process obtained varying the constitutive model. (a) and (b) yielding surface is not defined, (c) yielding surface is not dependent on the temperature, and (d) yielding surface is dependent on the temperature. More details about the constitutive models are specified in Table 6.

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Fig. 17

Planar spring model after the detachment from the building plate. Warpage effect is appreciable at the corners of the component.

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Fig. 18

Experimental measurements of the vertical displacements of the upper surface of the planar spring. Four different samples have been considered.

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Fig. 19

In dark, the points that remain attached to the building plate at the end of the cooling process. In light, the points detached from the building plate at the end of the cooling process.

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Fig. 20

Von Mises stress at significant time instants of the simulation. Residual stresses increase during the cooling process due to the shrinking effect. Residual stresses are, finally, relaxed after the constraints removal.

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Fig. 21

Z-axis displacements at significant time instants of the simulation. Displacements at the end of both printing and cooling process are of an order of magnitude lower than the displacements after part detachment.

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Fig. 22

Bridge model before and after the supports removal. A warpage effect is clearly evident on the upper surface of the model after support removal.

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Fig. 23

Experimental measurements of the bridge model: (a) XZ surface of the model and (b) detail of the upper surface of the model

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Fig. 24

Von Mises stress at significant time instants of the simulation. Residual stresses increase during the cooling process due to the shrinking effect. Residual stresses are, finally, relaxed after the constraints removal.

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Fig. 25

Z-axis displacements at significant time instants of the simulation. A shrinking effect is detected during the cooling process and the indentation between the external pillars and the deck of the bridge is evident in the simulation.

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Fig. 26

Detail of the indentation between the top of the external pillars and the deck of the bridge. The simulation is able to predict this anomalous effect.

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Fig. 27

X-axis and Z-axis displacements of the XZ surface of the bridge

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