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Research Papers

Characterizing Binder–Powder Interaction in Binder Jetting Additive Manufacturing Via Sessile Drop Goniometry

[+] Author and Article Information
Yun Bai

DREAMS Lab,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: yunbai@vt.edu

Candace Wall

Department of Chemistry,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061

Hannah Pham

Department of Materials Science and
Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061

Alan Esker

Department of Chemistry,
Macromolecules Innovation Institute,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061

Christopher B. Williams

DREAMS Lab,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Macromolecules Innovation Institute,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: cbwill@vt.edu

1Corresponding authors.

Manuscript received April 21, 2018; final manuscript received September 26, 2018; published online October 19, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Qiang Huang.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(1), 011005 (Oct 19, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1264; doi: 10.1115/1.4041624 History: Received April 21, 2018; Revised September 26, 2018

Understanding the binder–powder interaction and primitive formation is critical to advancing the binder jetting Additive Manufacturing process and improving the accuracy, precision, and mechanical properties of the printed parts. In this work, the authors propose an experimental approach based on sessile drop goniometry on a powder substrate to characterize the binder wetting powder process. As a binder drop penetrates into a prepared powder substrate, the dynamic contact angle formed in powder pores is calculated based on the measured binder penetration time, and the binder penetration depth is measured from the binder-powder granule retrieved from the powder substrate. Coupled with models of capillary flow, the technique provides a fundamental understanding of the binder–powder interaction that determines the material compatibility and printing parameters in binder jetting. Enabled by this gained understanding, it was determined that suspending nanoparticles in a binder could increase the capillary-driven penetration depth, which was then reduced by the further increase of the nanoparticle solid loading and resultant binder viscosity.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Binder jetting of metal manufacturing process

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Fig. 2

Overlapping primitives to form printed parts

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Fig. 3

Recorded apparent contact angle from initial contact (left) to completed absorption (right)

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Fig. 4

Top view (a) and side view (b) of a powder granule generated from one binder sessile drop penetrating into a powder substrate

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Fig. 5

Binder–powder interaction and primitive formation process in binder jetting

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Fig. 6

Static contact angle at solid–liquid–vapor interface

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Fig. 7

Apparent contact of binder spreading on powder bed (θa) versus dynamic wetting contact angle in the powder capillary pores (θd)

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Fig. 8

Particle size distribution of tested powders

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Fig. 9

Viscosity of polymer binder and nanoparticle–polymer dispersions at different solid loading

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Fig. 10

Fractional viscosity versus nanoparticle volume fraction with a curve fitted model

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Fig. 11

Inkjet testing of (a) polymer binder, (b) 15 wt %, and (c) 22.5 wt % nanoparticle binder

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Fig. 12

Measured time-dependent apparent contact angle as the sessile drop of polymer binder (2.61 μL), 7.5% nanoparticle binder (2.14 μL), 15% nanoparticle binder (1.98 μL), and 22.5% nanoparticle binder (1.88 μL) penetrates into the (a) 75 μm, (b) 30 + 5 μm, and (c) 17 μm powder, with a decreasing pore size of 12.2 μm, 2.8 μm, and 2.5 μm respectively

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Fig. 13

Penetration time versus solid loading of nanoparticles for different powders

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Fig. 14

Dynamic contact angle and calculated capillary number versus solid loading of nanoparticles for different powders

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Fig. 15

Normalized radial diameter and vertical depth of the binder agglomerated powder generated from the binder penetrating powder goniometry

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Fig. 16

The equilibrium binder saturation ratio versus nanoparticle solid loading for different powders

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Fig. 17

Overlapping of printed primitives (created by inkjetted drop volume, Vinkjet) with a drop spacing of dX and dY

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