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Research Papers

An Adaptive Geometry Transformation and Repair Method for Hybrid Manufacturing

[+] Author and Article Information
Maxwell Praniewicz

George W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
801 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: max.praniewicz@gatech.edu

Thomas Kurfess

George W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
801 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: kurfess@gatech.edu

Christopher Saldana

George W. Woodruff School of
Mechanical Engineering,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
801 Ferst Drive,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: christopher.saldana@me.gatech.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received May 14, 2018; final manuscript received September 20, 2018; published online October 19, 2018. Editor: Y. Lawrence Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(1), 011006 (Oct 19, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1333; doi: 10.1115/1.4041570 History: Received May 14, 2018; Revised September 20, 2018

Hybrid manufacturing has become particularly attractive for refurbishing of high-value freeform components. Components may experience unique geometric distortions and/or wear-driven material loss in service, which require the use of part-specific, adaptive repair strategies. The current work presents an integrated adaptive geometry transformation method for additive/subtractive hybrid manufacturing based on rigid and nonrigid registrations of parent region material and geometric interpolation of the repair region material. In this approach, rigid registration of nominal part geometry to actual part geometry is accomplished using iterative alignment of profiles in the parent material. Nonrigid registration is used to morph nominal part geometry to actual part geometry by transformation of the profile mean line. Adaptive additive and subtractive tool paths are then used to add material based on constant stock margin requirements, as well as to produce blend repairs with smooth transition between parent and repair regions. A range of part deformation conditions due to profile twist and length changes are evaluated for the case of a compressor blade/airfoil geometry. Accuracy of the resulting adaptive geometry transformation method were quantified by (1) surface comparisons of actual and transformed nominal geometry and (2) blend region surface accuracy. Performance of the adaptive repair strategy relative to a naïve strategy is evaluated by the consideration of material efficiency and process cycle time. It is shown that the adaptive repair strategy resulted in an increase in material efficiency by 42.2% and a decrease in process time by 17.8%, depending on the initial deformation imposed on the part geometry.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Image of compressor blade through various stages of repair process. Starting as a worn in use part (a), adding material to build up cut back material (b), fully repaired blade after machining. Section X shows a 2D cross section of a typical compressor blade with geometry notations.

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Fig. 2

Process for CAD geometry manipulation

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Fig. 3

Example of an actual part and its nominal CAD model, shown in dark and light gray, respectively, with blade twist (θ) and chord change (ΔC) shown in (a) and (b), respectively

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Fig. 4

Evolution of nominal geometry (gray) throughout the registration process in comparison with actual geometry (red): (a) nominal geometry, (b) rigid registration, and (c) profile mean line transformation

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Fig. 5

Surface comparison: (a) comparison of actual blade (red) to nominal geometry (gray) and (b) surface comparison of registered geometry to actual blade

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Fig. 6

Surface comparison of completely registered blade (opaque) to actual welded geometry (transparent) shown from multiple angles

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Fig. 7

Weld profiles superimposed on an actual geometry (a) created from the nominal data, (b) created by increasing the offset of nominal weld, and (c) weld created using adaptive geometry. Images of two different cross sections are shown for each profile.

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Fig. 8

Comparison of adaptive (a) and nonadaptive (b) material efficiency in the weld deposition process with respect to changes in twist (θ) and chord compression (ΔC)

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Fig. 9

Images of tool path strategies used in machining simulations, roughing (a), prefinishing (b), and finishing (c), and their resulting geometries (d)–(g)

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