Research Papers

Effective Damage Indicator for Aluminum Alloy (AA6082Zr) Processed by ECAE

[+] Author and Article Information
M.A. Agwa

Department of Mechanical Design
and Production Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
Zagazig University,
Zagazig 44519, Egypt
e-mail: mwa.agwa@gmail.com

M.N. Ali

Department of Mechanical Design
and Production Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering,
Zagazig University,
Zagazig 44519, Egypt

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 4, 2018; final manuscript received September 7, 2018; published online October 8, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Yannis Korkolis.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(12), 121014 (Oct 08, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1205; doi: 10.1115/1.4041479 History: Received April 04, 2018; Revised September 07, 2018

The present research aims to study the influence of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) parameters (die channel angle, die corner angle, and friction coefficient) on cracking and fracture tendency. For this type of analysis, a MATLAB code integrated with finite element Abaqus/Explicit model was developed and used. A parametric study is done to investigate how the damage tendency varies with changes of ECAE parameters. The distribution of the damage factor based on Cockcroft–Latham equation for different channel angles, corner angles, and friction coefficients is depicted. It is observed that the appearance of cracks on the upper surface is more likely to occur than on the lower surface. The reduction in friction coefficient does not guarantee minimum damage tendency. Finally, the optimum parameters for reducing the fracture tendency in ECAE are presented.

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Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Predicted distributions of damage factor, D, for ψ = 15 deg and different channel angles indicated below each graph. Left: frictionless (μ = 0). Right: friction (μ = 0.15): (a) ϕ=75 deg,Dmaxb=0.246, Dmaxs=0.223, (b) ϕ=75 deg, Dmaxb=0.303, Dmaxs=0.084, (c) ϕ=90 deg, Dmaxb=0.257,Dmaxs=0.257, (d) ϕ=90 deg, Dmaxb=0.266, Dmaxs=0.119, (e) ϕ=105 deg, Dmaxb=0.374, Dmaxs=0.295, (f) ϕ=105 deg, Dmaxb=0.347, Dmaxs=0.189, (g) ϕ=120 deg, Dmaxb=0.305, Dmaxs=0.296, and (h) ϕ=120 deg, Dmaxb=0.289, Dmaxs=0.265.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Distribution of the hydrostatic pressure for ψ = 15 deg and different channel angles indicated below each graph. Left: frictionless (μ = 0). Right: friction (μ = 0.15): (a) ϕ = 75 deg, (b) ϕ = 75 deg, (c) ϕ = 90 deg, (d) ϕ = 90 deg, (e) ϕ = 105 deg, (f) ϕ = 105 deg, (g) ϕ = 120 deg, and (h) ϕ = 120 deg.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Predicted distributions of damage factor, D, for ϕ = 90 deg and different corner angles indicated below each graph. Left: frictionless (μ = 0). Right: friction (μ = 0.15): (a) ψ=15 deg,Dmaxb=0.257, Dmaxs=0.257, (b) ψ=15 deg, Dmaxb=0.266, Dmaxs=0.119, (c) ψ=30deg, Dmaxb=0.328,Dmaxs=0.329, (d) ψ=30 deg, Dmaxb=0.281, Dmaxs=0.178, (e) ψ=45deg, Dmaxb=0.432, Dmaxs=0.335, (f) ψ=45deg, Dmaxb=0.362, Dmaxs=0.244, (g) ψ=60 deg, Dmaxb=0.502, Dmaxs=0.383, (h) ψ=60 deg,Dmaxb=0.461, Dmaxs=0.31, (i) ψ=75 deg, Dmaxb=0.508, Dmaxs=0.396, (j) ψ=75 deg, Dmaxb=0.481,Dmaxs=0.341, (k) ψ=90 deg, Dmaxb=0.485, Dmaxs=0.408, and (l) ψ=90 deg, Dmaxb=0.461,Dmaxs=0.341.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Distribution of the hydrostatic pressure for ϕ = 90 deg and different corner angles indicated below each graph. Left: frictionless (μ = 0). Right: friction (μ = 0.15): (a) ψ = 15 deg, (b) ψ = 15 deg, (c) ψ = 30 deg, (d) ψ = 30 deg, (e) ψ = 45 deg, (f) ψ = 45 deg, (g) ψ = 60 deg, (h) ψ = 60 deg, (i) ψ = 75 deg, (j) ψ = 75 deg, (k) ψ = 90 deg, and (l) ψ = 90 deg.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Evolution of damage factor at the location of maximum damage in the steady-state region (Dmaxs) represented by a circle (○) as a function of the vertical displacement of the punch in mm. Left: μ = 0. Right: μ = 0.15; (a) ϕ = 75 deg, (b) ϕ = 75 deg, (c) ϕ = 90 deg, (d) ϕ = 90 deg, (e) ϕ = 105 deg, (f) ϕ = 105 deg, (g) ϕ = 120 deg, and (h) ϕ = 120 deg.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Equal channel angular extrusion die with channel angle equals 90 deg and different corner angles 0 deg, 30 deg, 60 deg, and 90 deg: (a) the full ECAE die and (b) magnified view of the region that connects the outer and inner corners

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Predicted values of the maximum damage factor across the steady-state region, Dmaxs, for different channel angles indicated below each graph: (a) ϕ = 75 deg, (b) ϕ = 90 deg, (c) ϕ = 105 deg, and (d) ϕ = 120 deg



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