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Research Papers

An Integrated Dual Ultrasonic Selective Powder Dispensing Platform for Three-Dimensional Printing of Multiple Material Metal/Glass Objects in Selective Laser Melting

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaoji Zhang

Laser Processing Research Centre,
School of Mechanical,
Aerospace and Civil Engineering,
The University of Manchester,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK
e-mail: xiaoji.zhang@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk

Chao Wei

Laser Processing Research Centre,
School of Mechanical,
Aerospace and Civil Engineering,
The University of Manchester,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK
e-mail: chao.wei@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk

Yuan-Hui Chueh

Laser Processing Research Centre,
School of Mechanical,
Aerospace and Civil Engineering,
The University of Manchester,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK
e-mail: Yuan-hui.chueh@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk

Lin Li

Laser Processing Research Centre,
School of Mechanical,
Aerospace and Civil Engineering,
The University of Manchester,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK
e-mail: lin.li@manchester.ac.uk

1Corresponding authors.

Manuscript received July 3, 2018; final manuscript received September 3, 2018; published online October 10, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Zhijian (ZJ) Pei.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 141(1), 011003 (Oct 10, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1505; doi: 10.1115/1.4041427 History: Received July 03, 2018; Revised September 03, 2018

In this paper, we present a new approach of combining point-by-point selective powder delivery with powder bed fusion for multiple material (metal/glass) components printing. Dual ultrasonic vibration was used to achieve stable flowrates of both 316 L steel and soda-lime glass powders which were dispensed selectively and separately. The effects of the stand-off distance and the scanning speeds on the quality of the formed layers were investigated. The results showed that the ratio between the stand-off distance and the powder size (h/d) should be lower than 3 for accurate selective material deposition. However, in practical processing, for preventing the nozzle from being damaged by the parts, the stand-off distance was larger than three times of the powder size. Different laser processing parameters were developed for processing the metal and glass due to material property differences. The interfaces between 316 L and soda-lime glass were examined. A number of 3D objects consisting of metal and glass were printed using this method.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Metal and glass powders used in this research imaged using the VHX-5000 optical microscope: (a) 316 L stainless steel powders and (b) bimodal soda-line glass powders

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Fig. 2

The schematic of the multimaterial SLM system used in this research (1—upper PZT, 2—lower PZT, 3—hopper, 4—soft tube, 5—joint, 6—needle/nozzle, 7—bracket, 8—M10 screw with anti-slip washer, 9—insulation rubber washer, 10—M3 screw for fixing the needle)

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Fig. 3

The structure of the dual ultrasonic vibration feeding: (a) the feeding system and (b) the nozzle/needle of the powder feeding system

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Fig. 4

Schematic of powders dropping from the hopper and the nozzle/needle: (a) 2 mm orifice diameter and (b) 0.3 mm orifice diameter

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Fig. 5

Schematic of the inclined single track test

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Fig. 6

Comparing the mass flow over time using a single PZT feeding system

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Fig. 7

Flowrates of 316 L powders and soda-lime glass powders using the dual PZT powder feeding system: (a) 316 L powders, 0.2 mm, (b) 316 L powders, 0.3 mm, (c) soda-lime powders, 0.3 mm, and (d) soda-lime powders, 0.35 mm

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Fig. 8

Comparison of flows of (a) smaller orifice diameter and a higher ultrasonic vibrating power and (b) a larger orifice diameter and a lower ultrasonic vibration power

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Fig. 9

The line heights with linear increasing stand-off distance of 316 L powders

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Fig. 10

Line width and cross section of the deposited 316 L powder line: (a) region A (b) region B (c) region C, and (d) the cross section of the deposited line in (a), (b), and (c)

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Fig. 11

The line heights with linear increasing of stand-off distance of soda-lime glass powders

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Fig. 12

Line width and cross section of the deposited soda-lime glass powders: (a) the initial part of the line (b) region A, (c) region B (d) region C, (e) the cross section of the line in (b), (c), and (d)

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Fig. 13

Schematic of line forming mechanism in each region

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Fig. 14

Deposited lines at different speeds: (a) 316 L powders, (b) soda-lime powders

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Fig. 15

Layers deposited by the system, (a) is the 316L powders square layers, and (b) is the soda-lime powders square layers; (c) is the pattern LPRC from two different materials: 316 L (outside) and soda lime glass (inside)

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Fig. 16

The laser melted soda-lime glass block: (a) surface (b) cracks, and (c) the cross section of the block

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Fig. 17

Comparison between the melted 3 mm glass and 6 mm glass: (a) the top view and (b) the 60 deg inclined view

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Fig. 18

The interface between metal and glass of the 3 mm width part from the cross section view

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Fig. 19

The demonstration of metal-glass part made by the method: (a) the 316 L-glass pendant and (b) the Cu10Sn-glass pendant

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