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Research Papers

Stability Prediction Based Effect Analysis of Tool Orientation on Machining Efficiency for Five-Axis Bull-Nose End Milling

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiaowei Tang

School of Mechanical Science and Engineering,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: txwysxf@126.com

Zerun Zhu

School of Mechanical Science and Engineering,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: eonpig@hust.edu.cn

Rong Yan

School of Mechanical Science and Engineering,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: yanrong@hust.edu.cn

Chen Chen

School of Mechanical Science and Engineering,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: chenchen1990@hust.edu.cn

Fangyu Peng

School of Mechanical Science and Engineering,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China;
State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing
Equipment and Technology,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: zwm8917@263.net

Mingkai Zhang

School of Mechanical Science and Engineering,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: zmk0509@163.com

Yuting Li

School of Mechanical Science and Engineering,
Huazhong University of Science and Technology,
Wuhan 430074, China
e-mail: lytwhut@163.com

1Corresponding authors.

Manuscript received May 22, 2018; final manuscript received September 3, 2018; published online October 8, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Tony Schmitz.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(12), 121015 (Oct 08, 2018) (16 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1355; doi: 10.1115/1.4041426 History: Received May 22, 2018; Revised September 03, 2018

The traditional stability analysis by only considering cutting depth-spindle speed lobe diagram is appropriate for parameters optimization and efficiency improvement of the five-axis ball-end milling. However due to the complicated cutter-workpiece engagement (CWE) of bull-nose end cutter in five-axis milling, the maximal cutting depth may not produce the maximal material removal rate (MRR). Thus, the traditional stability analysis is not suitable for the five-axis bull-nose end milling in parameters optimization, and this paper presents a new stability analysis method to analyze the effect of tool orientation on machining efficiency for five-axis bull-nose end milling. In the establishing of stability prediction model, coordinate transformation and vector projection method are adopted to identify the CWE and dynamic cutting thickness, and the geometrical relationship of frequency response function (FRF) coordinate system and cutting force coordinate system with variable tool orientation is derived to establish the conversion of FRF and cutting force in stability equation. Based on the CWE sweeping, the cutting area along the feed direction is calculated to realize the critical MRR analysis in the stability model. Based on the established stability prediction model, the effects of tool orientation on critical cutting depth and MRR considering the chatter constraint are analyzed and validated by the cutting experiments, respectively. The lead-tilt diagram, which not only gives the boundary of stability region but also describes the contour line for MRR, is proposed for the further tool orientation optimization.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Five-axis milling of bull-nose end cutter: (a) machine-spindle-tool, (b) cutter-workpiece, and (c) geometric schematic

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Fig. 2

Geometric model of bull-nose end cutter

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Fig. 5

The FRFs of tool point under different A-axis and C-axis angles

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Fig. 4

Impact testing for different A-axis and C-axis angles

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Fig. 3

Cut region with workpiece: (a) slot milling and (b) nonslot milling

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Fig. 6

Calculation for the actual cutting depth

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Fig. 8

Characteristic curve

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Fig. 9

Cutting area comparison of ball-end cutter and bull-nose end cutter

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Fig. 10

Comparison of critical cutting depth and MRR based on stability analysis: (a) slot milling with spindle speed 3700 rpm, (b) slot milling with spindle speed 4350 rpm, (c) nonslot milling of scallop-height 0.1 mm with spindle speed 3700 rpm, and (d) nonslot milling of scallop-height 0.1 mm with spindle speed 4350 rpm

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Fig. 7

Stability lobes with lead or tilt angles variation: (a) slot milling, and (b) nonslot milling with scallop-height 0.1 mm

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Fig. 11

Stability boundary considering cutting depth and MRR, respectively. The symbols are as follows: (1) ○ and ◻ denote the stable case under the solid and the dotted line boundary, respectively; (2) * and × denote the unstable case under the solid and the dotted line boundary, respectively. (a) Slot milling with spindle speed 4350 rpm and (b) nonslot milling with spindle speed 4350 rpm.

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Fig. 12

Cutting experiment

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Fig. 13

Frequency spectrum analysis of the vibration signals: (a) test No.2, (b) test No.3, (c) test No.6, (d) test No.7, (e) test No.10, (f) test No.11, (g) test No.14, and (h) test No.15

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Fig. 14

Cutting width and scallop-height

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Fig. 15

Critical cutting area under different scallop heights: (a) spindle speed 3700 rpm, and (b) spindle speed 4350 rpm

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Fig. 16

Lead-tilt diagram for stability region and MRR under spindle speed 4350 rpm: (a) slot milling with cutting depth 0.5 mm, (b) slot milling with cutting depth 0.6 mm, (c) nonslot milling with cutting depth 1.0 mm, and (d) nonslot milling with cutting depth1.5 mm

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