0
Research Papers

Wear Mechanism and Modeling of Tribological Behavior of Polycrystalline Diamond Tools When Cutting Ti6Al4V

[+] Author and Article Information
Guangxian Li

School of Engineering,
RMIT University,
Mill Park 3082,
Victoria, Australia
e-mail: guangxian.li@rmit.edu.au

Shuang Yi

School of Engineering,
RMIT University,
Mill Park 3082,
Victoria, Australia
e-mail: s3516088@student.rmit.edu.au

Cuie Wen

School of Engineering,
RMIT University,
Mill Park 3082,
Victoria, Australia
e-mail: cuie.wen@rmit.edu.au

Songlin Ding

School of Engineering,
RMIT University,
Mill Park 3082,
Victoria, Australia
e-mail: songlin.ding@rmit.edu.au

Manuscript received April 10, 2018; final manuscript received August 23, 2018; published online October 5, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Radu Pavel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(12), 121011 (Oct 05, 2018) (15 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1227; doi: 10.1115/1.4041327 History: Received April 10, 2018; Revised August 23, 2018

Owing to its outstanding physical and mechanical properties, polycrystalline diamond (PCD) is ideal for cutting titanium alloys. However, the high temperature and stress caused by the interaction of tool surface and chip flow lead to different types of wear. This paper investigates the wear mechanisms of PCD tools in three different tribological regions: sticking zone, transition zone, and sliding zone, when machining titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. The tribological behavior of PCD tools in the wear processes were analyzed through both experiments and theoretical calculations. Analytical models of stresses and temperature distribution were developed and validated by turning experiments. PCD tools, consisting of diamond grains of different sizes: CTB002 (2 μm), CTB010 (10 μm), and CTM302 (2–30 μm), were used to cut Ti6Al4V at the normal cutting speed of 160 m/min and high cutting speed 240 m/min. It was found that adhesion, abrasion and diffusion dominated the wear process of PCD tools in different worn regions. Microscopic characters showed that the wear mechanisms were different in the three tribological regions, which was affected by the distribution of stresses and temperature. “Sticking” of workpiece material was obvious on the cutting edge, abrasion was severe in the transition zone, and adhesion was significant in the sliding zone. The shapes and morphological characters in different worn regions were affected by the stresses distribution and the types of PCD materials.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Arsecularatne, J. A. , Zhang, L. C. , and Montross, C. , 2006, “ Wear and Tool Life of Tungsten Carbide, PCBN and PCD Cutting Tools,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 46(5), pp. 482–491. [CrossRef]
Liang, L. , Liu, X. , Li, X.-Q. , and Li, Y.-Y. , 2015, “ Wear Mechanisms of WC–10Ni3Al Carbide Tool in Dry Turning of Ti6Al4V,” Int. J. Refractory Met. Hard Mater., 48, pp. 272–285. [CrossRef]
Pérez, J. , Llorente, J. , and Sanchez, J. , 2000, “ Advanced Cutting Conditions for the Milling of Aeronautical Alloys,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 100(1–3), pp. 1–11.
Tso, P.-L. , and Liu, Y.-G. , 2002, “ Study on PCD Machining,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 42(3), pp. 331–334. [CrossRef]
Kozak, J. , Rajurkar, K. P. , and Wang, S. Z. , 1994, “ Material Removal in WEDM of PCD Blanks,” J. Eng. Ind., 116(3), pp. 363–369. [CrossRef]
Sreejith, P. , Krishnamurthy, R. , Malhotra, S. , and Narayanasamy, K. , 2000, “ Evaluation of PCD Tool Performance During Machining of Carbon/Phenolic Ablative Composites,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 104(1–2), pp. 53–58. [CrossRef]
Pan, W. , Kamaruddin, A. , Ding, S. , and Mo, J. , 2014, “ Experimental Investigation of End Milling of Titanium Alloys With Polycrystalline Diamond Tools,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part B: J. Eng. Manuf., 228(8), pp. 832–844. [CrossRef]
Honghua, S. , Peng, L. , Yucan, F. , and Jiuhua, X. , 2012, “ Tool Life and Surface Integrity in High-Speed Milling of Titanium Alloy TA15 with PCD/PCBN Tools,” Chin. J. Aeronaut., 25(5), pp. 784–790. [CrossRef]
Amin, A. K. M. N. , Ismail, A. F. , and Nor Khairusshima, M. K. , 2007, “ Effectiveness of Uncoated WC–Co and PCD Inserts in End Milling of Titanium Alloy—Ti–6Al–4V,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 192–193, pp. 147–158. [CrossRef]
Kim, D. , Beal, A. , and Kwon, P. , 2016, “ Effect of Tool Wear on Hole Quality in Drilling of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic–Titanium Alloy Stacks Using Tungsten Carbide and Polycrystalline Diamond Tools,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 138(3), p. 031006. [CrossRef]
Chen, Y. , Zhang, L. C. , Arsecularatne, J. A. , and Montross, C. , 2006, “ Polishing of Polycrystalline Diamond by the Technique of Dynamic Friction—Part 1: Prediction of the Interface Temperature Rise,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 46(6), pp. 580–587. [CrossRef]
Lu, M.-C. , and Kannatey-Asibu, J. E. , 2004, “ Flank Wear and Process Characteristic Effect on System Dynamics in Turning,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 126(1), pp. 131–140. [CrossRef]
Nguyen, T. , Kwon, P. , Kang, D. , and Bieler, T. , 2016, “ The Origin of Flank Wear in Turning Ti-6Al-4V,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 38(12), p. 121013.
S. Zhang , J. F. Li , J. Sun , and F. Jiang , 2010, “ Tool wear and cutting forces variation in high-speed end-milling Ti-6Al-4V alloy,” The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 46(1), p. 69–78.
Li, A. , Zhao, J. , Wang, D. , Zhao, J. , and Dong, Y. , 2013, “ Failure Mechanisms of a PCD Tool in High-Speed Face Milling of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 67(9–12), pp. 1959–1966. [CrossRef]
Arrazola, P.-J. , Garay, A. , Iriarte, L.-M. , Armendia, M. , Marya, S. , and Le Maitre, F. , 2009, “ Machinability of Titanium Alloys (Ti6Al4V and Ti555. 3),” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 209(5), pp. 2223–2230. [CrossRef]
Bhowmick, S. , and Alpas, A. T. , 2013, “ The Performance of Diamond-Like Carbon Coated Drills in Thermally Assisted Drilling of Ti-6Al-4V,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 135(6), p. 061019. [CrossRef]
da Silva, R. B. , Machado, Á. R. , Ezugwu, E. O. , Bonney, J. , and Sales, W. F. , 2013, “ Tool Life and Wear Mechanisms in High Speed Machining of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy With PCD Tools Under Various Coolant Pressures,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 213(8), pp. 1459–1464. [CrossRef]
Ezugwu, E. O. , Bonney, J. , Da Silva, R. B. , and Çakir, O. , 2007, “ Surface Integrity of Finished Turned Ti–6Al–4V Alloy With PCD Tools Using Conventional and High Pressure Coolant Supplies,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 47(6), pp. 884–891. [CrossRef]
McNamara, D. , Carolan, D. , Alveen, P. , Murphy, N. , and Ivanković, A. , 2016, “ Effect of Loading Rate on the Fracture Toughness and Failure Mechanisms of Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD),” Int. J. Refractory Met. Hard Mater., 60, pp. 1–10. [CrossRef]
Miess, D. , and Rai, G. , 1996, “ Fracture Toughness and Thermal Resistance of Polycrystalline Diamond Compacts,” Mater. Sci. Eng.: A, 209(1–2), pp. 270–276. [CrossRef]
McNamara, D. , Alveen, P. , Damm, S. , Carolan, D. , Rice, J. H. , Murphy, N. , and Ivanković, A. , 2015, “ A Raman Spectroscopy Investigation Into the Influence of Thermal Treatments on the Residual Stress of Polycrystalline Diamond,” Int. J. Refractory Met. Hard Mater., 52, pp. 114–122. [CrossRef]
Jianxin, D. , Hui, Z. , Ze, W. , and Aihua, L. , 2011, “ Friction and Wear Behavior of Polycrystalline Diamond at Temperatures Up to 700 C,” Int. J. Refractory Met. Hard Mater., 29(5), pp. 631–638. [CrossRef]
Jaworska, L. , Szutkowska, M. , Klimczyk, P. , Sitarz, M. , Bucko, M. , Rutkowski, P. , Figiel, P. , and Lojewska, J. , 2014, “ Oxidation, Graphitization and Thermal Resistance of PCD Materials With the Various Bonding Phases of Up to 800 °C,” Int. J. Refractory Met. Hard Mater., 45, pp. 109–116. [CrossRef]
Westraadt, J. E. , Sigalas, I. , and Neethling, J. H. , 2015, “ Characterisation of Thermally Degraded Polycrystalline Diamond,” Int. J. Refractory Met. Hard Mater., 48, pp. 286–292. [CrossRef]
Kagnaya, T. , Boher, C. , Lambert, L. , Lazard, M. , and Cutard, T. , 2014, “ Microstructural Analysis of Wear Micromechanisms of WC–6Co Cutting Tools During High Speed Dry Machining,” Int. J. Refractory Met. Hard Mater., 42(Suppl C), pp. 151–162. [CrossRef]
Beste, U. , and Jacobson, S. , 2008, “ A New View of the Deterioration and Wear of WC/Co Cemented Carbide Rock Drill Buttons,” Wear, 264(11–12), pp. 1129–1141. [CrossRef]
Hatt, O. , Crawforth, P. , and Jackson, M. , 2017, “ On the Mechanism of Tool Crater Wear During Titanium Alloy Machining,” Wear, 374–375, pp. 15–20. [CrossRef]
Li, G. , Rahim, M. , Ding, S. , and Sun, S. , 2015, “ Performance and Wear Analysis of Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD) Tools Manufactured With Different Methods in Turning Titanium Alloy Ti-6Al-4V,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 85(1–4), pp. 1–17. [CrossRef]
Kato, S. , Yamaguchi, K. , and Yamada, M. , 1972, “ Stress Distribution at the Interface Between Tool and Chip in Machining,” J. Eng. Ind., 94(2), pp. 683–689. [CrossRef]
Karpat, Y. , and Özel, T. , 2005, “ Predictive Analytical and Thermal Modeling of Orthogonal Cutting Process—Part I: Predictions of Tool Forces, Stresses, and Temperature Distributions,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 128(2), pp. 435–444. [CrossRef]
Childs, T. , 2000, “ Metal Machining: Theory and Applications, Butterworth-Heinemann,” Oxford, UK.
Moufki, A. , Molinari, A. , and Dudzinski, D. , 1998, “ Modelling of Orthogonal Cutting With a Temperature Dependent Friction Law,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 46(10), pp. 2103–2138. [CrossRef]
Zhang, X. P. , Shivpuri, R. , and Srivastava, A. K. , 2016, “ A New Microstructure-Sensitive Flow Stress Model for the High-Speed Machining of Titanium Alloy Ti–6Al–4V,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 139(5), p. 051006. [CrossRef]
Kragel′skiĭ, I. V. , Dobychin, M. N. , and Kombalov, V. S. , 1982, Friction and Wear: Calculation Methods, Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK.
Zhang, C. , Lu, J. , Zhang, F. , and Butt, S. I. , 2017, “ Identification of a New Friction Model at Tool-Chip Interface in Dry Orthogonal Cutting,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 89(1–4), pp. 921–932. [CrossRef]
Li, K.-M. , and Liang, S. Y. , 2005, “ Modeling of Cutting Temperature in Near Dry Machining,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 128(2), pp. 416–424. [CrossRef]
Hong, S. Y. , and Ding, Y. , 2001, “ Cooling Approaches and Cutting Temperatures in Cryogenic Machining of Ti-6Al-4V,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 41(10), pp. 1417–1437. [CrossRef]
Tanveer, A. , Marla, D. , and Kapoor, S. G. , 2017, “ A Thermal Model to Predict Tool Temperature in Machining of Ti–6Al–4V Alloy With an Atomization-Based Cutting Fluid Spray System,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 139(7), p. 071016. [CrossRef]
Rahim, M. , Li, G. , Ding, S. , Mo, J. , and Brandt, M. , 2015, “ Electrical Discharge Grinding Versus Abrasive Grinding in Polycrystalline Diamond Machining—Tool Quality and Performance Analysis,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., 85(1–4), pp. 1–15. [CrossRef]
Li, G. , Yi, S. , Sun, S. , and Ding, S. , 2017, “ Wear Mechanisms and Performance of Abrasively Ground Polycrystalline Diamond Tools of Different Diamond Grains in Machining Titanium Alloy,” J. Manuf. Process., 29(Suppl C), pp. 320–331. [CrossRef]
Rahim, M. , Ding, S. , and Mo, J. , 2015, “ Electrical Discharge Grinding of Polycrystalline Diamond—Effect of Machining Parameters and Finishing in-Feed,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 137(2), p. 021017. [CrossRef]
Oosthuizen, G. , Akdogan, G. , Dimitrov, D. , and Treunicht, N. , 2010, “ A Review of the Machinability of Titanium Alloys,” R D J. South Afr. Inst. Mech. Eng., 26(3), pp. 43–52.
Hong, S. Y. , Ding, Y. , and Jeong, W.-C. , 2001, “ Friction and Cutting Forces in Cryogenic Machining of Ti–6Al–4V,” Int. J. Mach. Tools Manuf., 41(15), pp. 2271–2285. [CrossRef]
Bahi, S. , Nouari, M. , Moufki, A. , Mansori, M. E. , and Molinari, A. , 2012, “ Hybrid Modelling of Sliding–Sticking Zones at the Tool–Chip Interface Under Dry Machining and Tool Wear Analysis,” Wear, 286–287(Suppl C), pp. 45–54. [CrossRef]
Kümmel, J. , Braun, D. , Gibmeier, J. , Schneider, J. , Greiner, C. , Schulze, V. , and Wanner, A. , 2015, “ Study on Micro Texturing of Uncoated Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools for Wear Improvement and Built-Up Edge Stabilisation,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 215, pp. 62–70. [CrossRef]
Park, K.-H. , Beal, A. , Kim, D. , Kwon, P. , and Lantrip, J. , 2011, “ Tool Wear in Drilling of Composite/Titanium Stacks Using Carbide and Polycrystalline Diamond Tools,” Wear, 271(11–12), pp. 2826–2835. [CrossRef]
Zhang, X. , Shivpuri, R. , and Srivastava, A. K. , 2016, “ Chip Fracture Behavior in the High Speed Machining of Titanium Alloys,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 138(8), p. 081001. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Three tribological regions at tool-chip interface and (b) distribution of stresses, chip velocity, and temperature at tool–chip interface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Thermal conditions at tool–chip interface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Microstructure of raw PCD materials: (a) CTB002, (b) CTB010, and (c) CTM302

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Experimental setup of turning tests

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Illustration of the calculation process of the stress distribution

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Distribution of normal stress and shear stress at tool–chip interfaces

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Distribution of cutting temperature at tool–chip interfaces in the last cutting pass

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Micro worn morphology on rake faces: (a) CTB002, 160 m/min, (b) CTB010, 160 m/min, (c) CTM302, 160 m/min, (d) CTB002, 240 m/min, (e) CTB010, 240 m/min, and (f) CTM302, 240 m/min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Length of different worn regions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Change of cutting forces in different directions: (a) main cutting force, (b) feed force, (c) back force, and (d) friction coefficient at tool–chip interface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Result of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy by mapping scan

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Distribution of oxygen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

The enlarged images of worn morphology in region II: (a) CTB002, 160 m/min, (b) CTB010, 160 m/min, (c) CTM302, 160 m/min, (d) CTB002, 240 m/min, (e) CTB010, 240 m/min, and (f) CTM302, 240 m/min

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Distribution of cobalt

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

(a) Worn morphology in region III of the tool CTB002, (b) worn morphology in region III of the tool CTM302 under 240m/min, (c) worn morphology of the tool CTM302 under 160 m/min, and (d) chips generated by the tool CTM302 under 160m/min

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In