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Research Papers

The Role of Reinforcing Particle Size in Tailoring Interfacial Microstructure and Wear Performance of Selective Laser Melting WC/Inconel 718 Composites

[+] Author and Article Information
Qimin Shi, Wenhua Chen, Mujian Xia, Donghua Dai

College of Materials Science and Technology,
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and
Astronautics (NUAA),
Yudao Street 29,
Nanjing 210016, China;
Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for
Laser Additive Manufacturing
of High-Performance Metallic Components,
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and
Astronautics (NUAA),
Yudao Street 29,
Nanjing 210016, China

Dongdong Gu

College of Materials Science and Technology,
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and
Astronautics (NUAA),
Yudao Street 29,
Nanjing 210016, China;
Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for
Laser Additive Manufacturing
of High-Performance Metallic Components,
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and
Astronautics (NUAA),
Yudao Street 29,
Nanjing 210016, China
e-mail: dongdonggu@nuaa.edu.cn

Kaijie Lin

College of Materials Science and Technology,
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and
Astronautics (NUAA), Yudao Street 29,
Nanjing 210016, China;
Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratory for
Laser Additive Manufacturing of High-
Performance Metallic Components,
Nanjing University of Aeronautics and
Astronautics (NUAA),
Yudao Street 29,
Nanjing 210016, China

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received October 31, 2017; final manuscript received June 8, 2018; published online September 17, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Johnson Samuel.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(11), 111019 (Sep 17, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: MANU-17-1674; doi: 10.1115/1.4040544 History: Received October 31, 2017; Revised June 08, 2018

In this paper, both traditional Inconel 718 parts and WC/Inconel 718 composites were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM). The size of WC particles was observed to play a crucial role in determining the microstructural evolution, distortion, and microcracks around the WC particles, which inturn also affected the effective mechanical properties of WC/Inconel 718 composites. The use of the 5.25 μm diameter WC particles resulted in fine dendrites at the interface between the WC particle and the Inconel 718 matrix. This was attributed to the formation of an annular heat flow and radially arranged temperature gradient directions around the WC particle that increased the contact area between the matrix and the particle, thereby also improving the interfacial bonding. A sound metallurgical bonding at the interface was achieved with negligible distortion and microcracks due to a relatively uniform temperature distribution and temperature gradient (4.7 × 103 °C/mm) at the interface. This also explains the generation of dense and smooth interfacial bonding, which yielded a low average friction coefficient of 0.21. The wear properties were improved since grooves and spallation were reduced with the decrease of the WC size.

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Figures

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Fig. 6

Schematic showing force analysis around the WC particle

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Fig. 5

Temperature distribution and temperature gradient distribution along path 1 during SLM process: (a) NON-particle, (b) particle size of 21 μm, (c) particle size of 10.5 μm, and (d) particle size of 5.25 μm

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Fig. 4

SEM showing distortion and fragmentation of the WC particle during SLM process: (a) particle size of 21 μm, (b) high-magnification SEM image in the rectangle of (a), (c) particle size of 10.5 μm, and (d) particle size of 5.25 μm

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Fig. 3

Schematic showing the heat flow directions around the WC particle during SLM process: (a) NON-particle, (b) particle size of 21 μm, (c) particle size of 10.5 μm, and (d) particle size of 5.25 μm

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Fig. 1

(a) Three-dimensional finite element model with a tailored WC particle inside; (b) section view of the powder bed in the area of the red rectangle in (a) (path 1 is the central axis of the particle and the direction of path 1 is parallel to the direction of Y-axis)

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Fig. 7

SEM showing microcracks around the interface between the particle and the Inconel 718 matrix: (a) particle size of 21 μm, (b) particle size of 10.5 μm, and (c) particle size of 5.25 μm

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Fig. 8

Cooling rates at the interface between the particle and the Inconel 718 matrix, out of the particle and in the particle, respectively

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Fig. 9

COFs of SLM-processed Inconel 718 parts and WC/Inconel 718 composites using different-sized WC particles

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Fig. 10

SEM images showing worn surface morphologies on Inconel 718 parts and WC/Inconel718 composites: (a) NON-particle, (b) particle size of 21 μm, (c) particle size of 10.5 μm, and (d) particle size of 5.25 μm

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Fig. 11

High-magnification SEM images showing characteristic worn surface morphologies on Inconel 718 parts and WC/Inconel 718 composites in (a) Fig. 10(a), (b) Fig. 10(b), (c) Fig.10(c), and (d) Fig. 10(d)

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Fig. 12

SEM images showing characteristic morphologies of WC particles after the wear tests in WC/Inconel 718 composites: (a) particle size of 21 μm, (b) particle size of 10.5 μm, and (c) particle size of 5.25 μm

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Fig. 2

SEM showing microstructural features around the interface between the particle and the matrix: (a) NON-particle, (b) particle size of 21 μm, (c) high-magnification SEM image in the rectangle of (b), (d) particle size of 10.5 μm, (e) high-magnification SEM image inthe rectangle of (d), (f) particle size of 5.25 μm, and (g) high-magnification SEM image in the rectangle of (f)

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