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Research Papers

A Semi-Analytical Nonlinear Regression Approach for Weld Profile Prediction: A Case of Alternating Current Square Waveform Submerged Arc Welding of Heat Resistant Steel

[+] Author and Article Information
Uttam Kumar Mohanty

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad,
Sangareddy 502285, India
e-mail: me15resch11004@iith.ac.in

Abhay Sharma

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad,
Sangareddy 502285, India
e-mail: abhay@iith.ac.in

Mitsuyoshi Nakatani

Technical Research Institute,
Hitachi Zosen Corporation,
Osaka 551-0022, Japan
e-mail: nakatani_m@hitachizosen.co.jp

Akikazu Kitagawa

Technical Research Institute,
Hitachi Zosen Corporation,
Osaka 551-0022, Japan
e-mail: kitagawa_a@hitachizosen.co.jp

Manabu Tanaka

Joining and Welding Research Institute,
Osaka University,
Osaka 567-0047, Japan
e-mail: tanaka@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp

Tetsuo Suga

Joining and Welding Research Institute,
Osaka University,
Osaka 567-0047, Japan
e-mail: suga@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 19, 2018; final manuscript received July 19, 2018; published online August 31, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(11), 111013 (Aug 31, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1103; doi: 10.1115/1.4040983 History: Received February 19, 2018; Revised July 19, 2018

The complexity in weld profile caused by abrupt change in polarity in square waveform welding is investigated through the development of a model capable to accurately predict weld profile. A semi-analytical model is conceived wherein characteristic attributes of a composite parabolic–elliptic function, which represent the weld profile, are obtained through nonlinear regression (NLR). The proposed model is demonstrated for its efficacy in the prediction of weld profile over a wide range of welding parameters, vis-à-vis, welding current, frequency, electrode negative (EN) ratio, and welding velocity. The investigation suggests that the center and outer cores of welding arc remains more active during positive and negative polarity, respectively, that leads to distinct macroscopic zones in weld cross section and thus, necessitates a composite profile for representation of weld profile. The intersection of the zones forms a metallurgical notch which the investigation offers a method to estimate and thus control. Unlike the convention continuous arc welding, the waveform arc welding caters welding at higher velocity without compromising the weld penetration and almost abolishing the metallurgical notch as well.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Bead shape and (b) bead model parameters

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Fig. 2

Calculation of bead features

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Fig. 3

Hardness measurement of penetration profile

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Fig. 4

Comparison of actual and predicted bead shape

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Fig. 5

Comparison between the actual and predicted bead characteristic parameters

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Fig. 6

Comparison of shape prediction with the hardness mapping

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Fig. 7

The shape of weld bead at different: (a) frequency, (b) EN ratio, (c) current, and (d) velocity

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Fig. 8

The effect of process parameters: (a) frequency, (b) EN ratio, (c) current, and (d) welding velocity on penetration and bay areas

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Fig. 9

Relationship between bay area and penetration area

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Fig. 10

The effect of process parameters on notch angle

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