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Research Papers

Tool Wear of Advanced Coated Tools in Drilling of CFRP

[+] Author and Article Information
Sam Swan

Mechanical Engineering,
Deakin University,
221 Burwood Hwy,
Burwood 3125, VIC, Australia
e-mail: swans@deakin.edu.au

Mohammad Sayem Bin Abdullah

School of Engineering and Computer Science,
Washington State University,
Vancouver, WA 98686
e-mail: m.binabdullah@wsu.edu

Dave Kim

Engineering and Computer Science (VECS),
Washington State University,
Room 301X,
Vancouver, WA 98686-9600
e-mail: kimd@wsu.edu

Dinh Nguyen

Mechanical Engineering,
Michigan State University,
1449 Engineering Research Court,
Room A100,
East Lansing, MI 48824-1226
e-mail: sondinh@egr.msu.edu

Patrick Kwon

Mem. ASME
Mechanical Engineering,
428 S. Shaw Lane, Room 2555,
Michigan State University,
East Lansing, MI 48824-1226
e-mail: pkwon@egr.msu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 7, 2018; final manuscript received July 12, 2018; published online September 7, 2018. Editor: Y. Lawrence Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(11), 111018 (Sep 07, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1410; doi: 10.1115/1.4040916 History: Received June 07, 2018; Revised July 12, 2018

This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of super-hard ceramic coatings by evaluating tool wear when drilling carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) composite. The drilling experiments of CFRP are conducted with diamond-like carbon (DLC) coated, AlMgB14 (BAM) coated, AlCrN and Si3N4 and TiN (simply denoted as (AlCrSi/Ti)N) coated, and uncoated tungsten carbide drills. Each coating, dictated by its unique processing technique, provides unique thickness and morphology, and its physical properties, which makes the comparison among the coatings much difficult but enables to deduce the desirable attributes in the prospective coating ideally suited in drilling CFRP. To do so, after the drilling experiments, the tool wear was captured using the scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopes to construct the wear evolution that enables us to evaluate each coating qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Among the drills tested, the (AlCrSi/Ti)N-coated drills provided the best performance despite of the fact that (AlCrSi/Ti)N coating particularly are not harder than any other coating. The superior performance of the (AlCrSi/Ti)N coating can be explained by the comparable stiffness to the carbide substrate, 7.3 μm-thick coating consisting of the numerous nanoscale alternating layers between nanocomposite of AlCrN and Si3N4 and TiN coatings and the enhanced adhesion, which provide the effective cutting of carbon fibers. However, the thin DLC coating despite of its superior hardness and the BAM coating despite of its low friction did not perform at the level that the (AlCrSi/Ti)N coating was able to achieve.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

SEM image of (AlCrSi/Ti)N coating [46] and depiction of BAM coating: (a) SEM image of the (AlCrSi/Ti)N coating and (b) depiction of BAM's multiple layers

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Fig. 2

Experimental drilling setup and CNC equipment used for drilling

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Fig. 3

SEM images of the uncoated tool after hole 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 (magnification of 1000)

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Fig. 4

Tool wear progression of the uncoated tool at hole 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120

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Fig. 5

SEM images of the DLC-coated tool after hole 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 (magnification of 1000)

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Fig. 6

EDX Summary of DLC drill tool and coating composition after drilling ten holes

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Fig. 7

Tool wear progression of the DLC-coated tool at hole 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120

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Fig. 8

SEM images of the BAM-coated tool when fresh and after hole 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120

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Fig. 9

EDX summary of BAM drill tool and coating composition after drilling ten holes

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Fig. 10

Tool wear progression of the BAM-coated tool at hole 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120

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Fig. 11

SEM images of the (AlCrSi/Ti)N coated tool when fresh and after hole 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120

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Fig. 12

EDX Summary of (AlCrSi/Ti)N drill tool and coating composition after drilling ten holes

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Fig. 13

Tool wear progression of the (AlCrSi/Ti)N coated drill at hole 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120

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Fig. 14

Comparison of tool wear area and flank wear based on the profile at 300 μm from the margin: (a) wear area and (b) flank wear

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Fig. 15

Depictions of edge rounding wear (a) initial edge wear and (b) damage resistant at the coating–substrate interface as the edge rounding progresses: (a) initial edge wear, (b) damage resistant at the soft but stiff coating–substrate interface, and (c) damage resistant at hard but compliant coating–substrate interface

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Fig. 16

The dimple detachments of the coating on the cutting edge of the BAM coating on the flank surface

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Fig. 17

Exposures of (AlCrSi/Ti)N, BAM, and DLC coatings after drilling 140 holes: (a) (AlCrSi/Ti)N, (b) BAM, and (c) DLC

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Fig. 18

The measured thrust force data while drilling holes 1, 20, 40, and 120 for uncoated, BAM, DLC, and (AlCrSi/Ti)N drills

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