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Research Papers

Investigation of Interfacial Layer for Friction Stir Scribe Welded Aluminum to Steel Joints

[+] Author and Article Information
Kaifeng Wang

Key Laboratory of Mechanism Theory and
Equipment Design of Ministry of Education,
Tianjin University,
Tianjin 300354, China;
Department of Industrial and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: wangkaifeng1987@gmail.com

Piyush Upadhyay

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,
Energy Materials and Manufacturing,
Richland, WA 99354
e-mail: Piyush.Upadhyay@pnnl.gov

Yuxiang Wang

Department of Industrial and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: yww5167@psu.edu

Jingjing Li

Mem. ASME
Department of Industrial and
Manufacturing Engineering,
Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: jul572@engr.psu.edu

Xin Sun

Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Energy and Transportation Science Division,
Oak Ridge, TN 37932
e-mail: sunx1@ornl.gov

Timothy Roosendaal

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory,
Energy Materials and Manufacturing,
Richland, WA 99354
e-mail: Timothy.Roosendaal@pnnl.gov

1Corresponding authors.

The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.Manuscript received January 29, 2018; final manuscript received July 10, 2018; published online August 3, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(11), 111005 (Aug 03, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1063; doi: 10.1115/1.4040873 History: Received January 29, 2018; Revised July 10, 2018

Friction stir scribe (FSS) welding as a recent derivative of friction stir welding (FSW) has been successfully used to fabricate a linear joint between automotive Al and steel sheets. It has been established that FSS welding generates a hook-like structure at the bimaterial interface. Beyond the hook-like structure, there is a lack of fundamental understanding on the bond formation mechanism during this newly developed FSS welding process. In this paper, the microstructures and phases at the joint interface of FSS welded Al to ultra-high-strength steel were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that both mechanical interlocking and interfacial bonding occurred simultaneously during the FSS welding process. Based on SEM observations, a higher diffusion driving force in the advancing side was found compared to the retreating side and the scribe swept zone, and thermally activated diffusion was the primary driving force for the interfacial bond formation in the scribe swept region. The TEM energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) revealed that a thin intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was formed through the interface, where the thickness of this layer gradually decreased from the advancing side to the retreating side owing to different material plastic deformation and heat generations. In addition, the diffraction pattern (or one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (FFT) pattern) revealed that the IMC layer was composed of Fe2Al5 or Fe4Al13 with a Fe/Al solid solution depending on the weld regions.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Friction stir scribe tool geometry

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Fig. 2

(a) Cross-sectional macrostructure of the FSS welded joint, (b) magnified microstructure of the hook in the advancing side, and (c) magnified microstructure of the hook in the retreating side

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Fig. 3

Selected line scanning and FIB positions (dashed rectangles) at (a) the hook in the advancing side, (b) middle of the scribe swept zone, and (c) the hook in the retreating side

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Fig. 4

Line scanning results (a) outside the hook in the advancing side (line 1), (b) inside the hook in the advancing side (line 2), (c) middle of scribe swept zone (line 3), and (d) inside the hook in the retreating side (line 4)

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Fig. 5

(a) Back scattered electron image of the interfacial microstructure outside the hook in the advancing side (i.e., position 1), (b) EDXS map scanning results at this position, and (c) high-magnification map scanning results of a crack

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Fig. 6

Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy line scanning results of the sample at position 1

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Fig. 7

High-magnification TEM images of (a) the boundary between Fe-rich side and the IMC layer and (b) the boundary between the IMC layer and Al side

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Fig. 8

(a) Transmission electron microscopy image of the interfacial microstructure inside the hook in the advancing side (i.e., position 2) and (b) high-magnification TEM image of the IMC layer

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Fig. 9

(a) High-magnification STEM image around the IMC layer at position 2 and (b) EDXS line scanning results across the IMC layer

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Fig. 10

High-magnification TEM image of the interfacial microstructure in the middle of the scribe swept zone (i.e., position 3)

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Fig. 11

(a) Low-magnification STEM image around the interface at position 3 and (b) Al element distribution

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Fig. 12

Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy line scanning results across the IMC layer at position 3

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Fig. 13

(a) Transmission electron microscopy image of the interfacial microstructure inside the hook in the retreating side (i.e., position 4) and (b) high-magnification TEM image of the IMC layer

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Fig. 14

(a) Scanning transmission electron microscopy image around the IMC layer at position 4, (b) Al element distribution at the interface, and (c) EDXS line scanning results across the IMC layer

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