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Research Papers

A Finite Element Approach to Calculate Temperatures Arising During Cryogenic Turning of Metastable Austenitic Steel AISI 347

[+] Author and Article Information
Steven Becker

Institute of Applied Mechanics,
Technische Universität Kaiserslautern,
Kaiserslautern 67663, Germany
e-mail: becker_s@rhrk.uni-kl.de

Hendrik Hotz, Benjamin Kirsch, Jan C. Aurich

Institute for Manufacturing Technology
and Production Systems,
Technische Universität Kaiserslautern,
Kaiserslautern 67663, Germany

Erik V. Harbou

Laboratory of Engineering Thermodynamics,
Technische Universität Kaiserslautern,
Kaiserslautern 67663, Germany

Ralf Müller

Institute of Applied Mechanics,
Technische Universität Kaiserslautern,
Kaiserslautern 67663, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 7, 2018; final manuscript received June 29, 2018; published online July 27, 2018. Editor: Y. Lawrence Yao.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(10), 101016 (Jul 27, 2018) (7 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1409; doi: 10.1115/1.4040778 History: Received June 07, 2018; Revised June 29, 2018

In this paper, an inverse method is presented to evaluate the inner workpiece temperature distribution during cryogenic turning of metastable austenitic steel AISI 347 utilizing a FE representation of the process. Temperature data during the experiments are provided by thermocouples and a commercial thermography system. A constant cutting speed at two varying feeds is investigated. Inverse parameter verification by aligning simulated and experimental data in a least squares sense is achieved. A heat flux from tool to workpiece as well as heat transfer coefficients for forced convection by air and by carbon dioxide as cryogenic coolant are identified for each set of cutting parameters. Rigid body rotation in the model is considered applying convective time derivatives of the temperature field. Unphysical oscillations occurring in regions of high Péclet numbers are suppressed utilizing a streamline-upwind/Petrov–Galerkin scheme.

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References

Angel, T. , 1954, “ Formation of Martensite in Austenitic Stainless Steels,” J. Iron Steel Inst., 177, pp. 165–174.
Mayer, P. , Skorupski, R. , Smaga, M. , Eifler, D. , and Aurich, J. C. , 2014, “ Deformation Induced Surface Hardening When Turning Metastable Austenitic Steel AISI 347 With Different Cryogenic Cooling Strategies,” Proc. CIRP, 14, pp. 101–106. [CrossRef]
Aurich, J. C. , Mayer, P. , Kirsch, B. , Eifler, D. , Smaga, M. , and Skorupski, R. , 2014, “ Characterization of Deformation Induced Surface Hardening During Cryogenic Turning of AISI 347,” CIRP Ann. Manuf. Technol., 63(1), pp. 65–68. [CrossRef]
Mayer, P. , Kirsch, B. , and Aurich, J. C. , 2014, “ Investigations on Cryogenic Turning to Achieve Surface Hardening of Metastable Austenitic Steel AISI 347,” Adv. Mater. Res., 1018, pp. 153–160. [CrossRef]
Klocke, F. , and König, W. , 2008, Fertigungsverfahren 1: Drehen, Fräsen, Bohren, 8th ed., VDI-Buch. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Hahnenberger, F. , Smaga, M. , and Eifler, D. , 2014, “ Microstructural Investigation of the Fatigue Behavior and Phase Transformation in Metastable Austenitic Steels at Ambient and Lower Temperatures,” Int. J. Fatigue, 69, pp. 36–48. [CrossRef]
Becker, S. , Mayer, P. , Kirsch, B. , Aurich, J. C. , v. Harbou, E. , and Müller, R. , 2016, “ Transient Finite Element Simulation of the Temperature Field During Cryogenic Turning of Metastable Austenitic Steel AISI 347,” PAMM, 16(1), pp. 303–304. [CrossRef]
Brooks, A. N. , and Hughes, T. , 1982, “ Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin Formulations for Convection Dominated Flows With Particular Emphasis on the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations,” Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng., 32(1–3), pp. 199–259. [CrossRef]
Hughes, T. , and Brooks, A. N. , 1982, “ A Theoretical Framework for Petrov-Galerkin Methods With Discontinuous Weighting Functions: Application to the Streamline-Upwind Procedure,” Finite Elements in Fluids, Vol. 4, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 47–65.
VDI-Gesellschaft, 2013, VDI-Wärmeatlas, 11., bearb. und erw. aufl. ed, VDI-Buch. Springer Vieweg, Berlin.
Lequien, P. , Poulachon, G. , Outeiro, J. C. , and Rech, J. , 2018, “ Hybrid Experimental/Modelling Methodology for Identifying the Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Assisted Machining,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 128, pp. 500–507. [CrossRef]
Hribersek, M. , Sajn, V. , Pusavec, F. , Rech, J. , and Kopac, J. , 2017, “ The Procedure of Solving the Inverse Problem for Determining Surface Heat Transfer Coefficient Between Liquefied Nitrogen and Inconel 718 Workpiece in Cryogenic Machining,” Proc. CIRP, 58, pp. 617–622. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Workpiece geometry for cryogenic turning, including eroded holes for thermocouple application at three measuring points (MP)

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Fig. 2

Influence of different SUPG parameter values b for dry turning with vc=30(m/min)  and f=0.15 (mm/rev) on (a) residual norm and (b) number of newton iterations

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Fig. 3

Temperature distribution during dry turning with vc=30 (m/min) and (a) f=0.15 (mm/rev), (b) f=0.35 (mm/rev)

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Fig. 4

Surface temperature along the feed travel for dry turning with vc=30  (m/min)  and f=0.15 (mm/rev), both measured via infrared thermography and simulated

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Fig. 5

Temperature distribution during CO2 cooling and turning lathe equivalent to vc=30 (m/min) for (a) f=0.15 (mm/rev) and (b) f=0.35 (mm/rev)

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Fig. 6

Predictive temperature distribution during cryogenic turning with parameter values from single parameter optimization, for vc=30 (m/min) and (a) f=0.15 (mm/rev), (b) f=0.35 (mm/rev)

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Fig. 7

Temperature distribution during cryogenic turning after additional parameter optimization, for vc=30 (m/min) and (a) f=0.15 (mm/rev), (b) f=0.35 (mm/rev)

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Fig. 8

Mean values and standard deviation of identified optimums for single parameter identification and cryogenic turning, by means of (a) the heat flux Qin and (b) the heat transfer coefficient αCO2

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