Research Papers

Effects of Process Parameters on Crack Inhibition and Mechanical Interlocking in Friction Self-Piercing Riveting of Aluminum Alloy and Magnesium Alloy

[+] Author and Article Information
YunWu Ma

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital
Manufacture for Thin-Walled Structures,
State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
System and Vibration,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China

GuanZhong He, ZhongQin Lin

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital
Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures,
State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
System and Vibration,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China

Ming Lou

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital
Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China

YongBing Li

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital
Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures,
State Key Laboratory of Mechanical
System and Vibration,
Shanghai Jiao Tong University,
Shanghai 200240, China
e-mail: yongbinglee@sjtu.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 12, 2018; final manuscript received June 26, 2018; published online July 27, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Wayne Cai.

J. Manuf. Sci. Eng 140(10), 101015 (Jul 27, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: MANU-18-1149; doi: 10.1115/1.4040729 History: Received March 12, 2018; Revised June 26, 2018

Friction self-piercing riveting (F-SPR) process has shown advantages over fusion welding, solid state welding, and traditional mechanical joining processes in joining dissimilar materials. Because of the thermo-mechanical nature of F-SPR process, formation of the joint is determined by both riveting force and softening degree of materials to be joined. However, it is still not clear that how exactly the riveting force and generated frictional heat jointly influence mechanical interlocking formation and crack inhibition during F-SPR process. To address these issues, F-SPR process was applied to join 2.2 mm-thick aluminum alloy AA6061-T6 to 2.0 mm-thick magnesium alloy AZ31B. The correlation of riveting force, torque responses, and energy input with joint quality was investigated systematically under a wide range of process parameter combinations. It was found that a relatively greater final peak force and higher energy input were favorable to produce sound joints. Based on that, a two-stage F-SPR method was proposed to better control the energy input and riveting force for improved joint quality. The joints produced by the two-stage method exhibited significantly improved lap-shear strength, i.e., 70% higher than traditional self-piercing riveting (SPR) joints and 30% higher than previous one-stage F-SPR joints. This research provides a valuable reference for further understanding the F-SPR joint formation mechanism and conducting process optimization.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of F-SPR process

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Fig. 2

F-SPR rivets: (a) three-dimensional profile of the rivet head measured using a KEYENCE VHX-2000 digital microscope, (b) key dimensions of the rivet, and (c) as-fabricated rivets. The unit is mm.

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Fig. 3

F-SPR system: (a) side view of the C-framed equipment, (b) close-up view of the F-SPR platform marked with a red box in (a), and (c) close-up view of the rivet and die

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Fig. 4

Geometrical indexes of Al–Mg F-SPR joints

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Fig. 5

F-SPR joint formation process under 3600-2.0 through interrupting the process at different feed depth values: (a) Feed depth Z = 1.8 mm, (b) 3.0 mm, (c) 4.2 mm, and (d) 5.3 mm (the final joint). The black arrows indicate material flow directions.

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Fig. 6

Force and torque acted on the rivet in F-SPR process

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Fig. 7

Force and torque responses during F-SPR under the process parameter combinations of 3600-2.0: (a) force–displacement curves and (b) torque–displacement curves

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Fig. 8

Force-rivet feed depth curves of the F-SPR process under different spindle speed and feed rate combinations: (a) feed rate f = 2.0 mm/s, (b) f = 6.5 mm/s, and (c) f = 11 mm/s

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Fig. 9

Final peak force values in the force–displacement curves of F-SPR process under different process parameter combinations

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Fig. 10

Energy input of F-SPR process under different process parameter combinations: (a) energy input contributed by force and (b) energy input contributed by torque

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Fig. 11

Force response and total energy input in two-stage F-SPR process: (a) Force-rivet feed depth curves under different switch depth and (b) total energy input under different switch depth

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Fig. 12

Cross section profile and bottom appearance of the joints by two-stage F-SPR process: (a) and (a') test # 10, (b) and (b') test # 11, (c) and (c') test # 12, (d) and (d') test # 13

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Fig. 13

Cross section view and bottom appearance of a SPR joint

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Fig. 14

Lap-shear peak strength comparison: (a) Joints by one-stage F-SPR process and (b) joints by two-stage F-SPR process and SPR joints

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Fig. 15

Lap-shear failure modes of the F-SPR joints: (a) mechanical interlock failure (MIF) of 3600-11 (test # 9) and (b) bottom sheet fracture (BMF) of test # 11

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Fig. 16

Lap-shear load–displacement curve comparison of the joints by one-stage F-SPR process (3600-11, test # 9), two-stage F-SPR process (test #11) and SPR process



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